This study examines the perceptions of citizens living in Tokyo, which is hosting the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, in the immediate aftermath of the decision to postpone the event. The study is a cross-sectional online survey involving 2,011 respondents (975 males, 1,026 females, 1 other, and 9 non-respondents; mean age ± SD = 44.19 ± 14.08 years; 1 missing). The respondents were asked to choose from the following six options with regard to the postponement of the Tokyo 2020 Games: (1) the Games should be held as planned and on the same schedule (implementation group), (2) the Games should be held as planned but with no spectators and with measures to prevent infection (no-spectator implementation group), (3) the Games should be held as planned and postponed (postponement group), (4) the Games should be postponed, with no spectators and with measures to prevent infection (no-spectator postponement group), (5) should be cancelled (cancel group), and (6) other. The study examined residents' perceptions of the Tokyo 2020 Games following the decision to postpone the event, and made the following conclusions: (1) more than 40% of respondents believed that the Games should be cancelled, (2) perceptions may differ slightly by gender and age, and (3) many respondents believed that the Games should be held without spectators, with other arrangements. The findings can be used as a basis for building
In recent years, policy unification of sports for persons with disabilities and sports for non-disabled persons has been progressing mainly in developed countries. In developing countries as well, there are signs that disability sports may be promoted as sports policy. It is presumed that in developing countries there are unique circumstances that are different from those of developed countries in regard to the process of the introduction of disability sports policy. But it has not been verified what factors are involved. Therefore, in this research, we focused on the policy change of disability sports which has been promoted as a sports policy from the position of welfare policy. Particularly, we focused on Malaysia, which has a history of disability sports being transferred from welfare policy to sports policy starting in 2006. As a framework of analysis of this research, Advocacy Coalition Framework was applied. As a result, while being affected by Malaysia's domestic and international trends, such as fostering awareness about the rights of persons with disabilities and the sophistication of disability sports centering on the Paralympics, the relationship between the advocacy groups has changed. Especially the agenda regarding the source of funding leading to the FESPIC has functioned as an issue to transform the behavior among each of the Advocacy Coalition groups. Also, it was found that an NGO that promotes general activities related to the improvement of rights of persons with disabilities has promoted the development of laws in one country by positioning sport participation as one of the human rights of persons with disabilities. It has become clear that the needs of organizations that promote the right to improve disability rights and the recognition of social issues faced by disability sports organizations create an environment that promotes disability sports.
Purpose: While the goal of 65% of adults exercising and playing sports at least one day a week has been set, the actual achievement figures are far lower. It is assumed that some people are too busy with work and household chores to increase the frequency of sports activities, and that existing sports services do not function sufficiently to meet their needs. This study determined consumer acceptance and its supporting factors for a new sports participation service, Sport Coaching Skill Sharing (SCSS). The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to test the relationship between technological factors of the SCSS (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, personal innovativeness, perceived risk, and intentions to use the SCSS). Methods: An internet survey was conducted among people aged 20 to 69 who work out or practice sports more than once a year. Path analysis was conducted to test a hypothetical model of the relationship between intention to use SCSS and the aforementioned factors. Results: Perceived usefulness and ease of use had a positive effect on intention to use, and the path of perceived ease of use to perceived usefulness was also significant. These results supported the use of TAM as a model to explain consumer acceptance of SCSS. The results showed that personal innovativeness positively affects intention to use, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. However, the hypothesis that personal innovativeness has a negative effect on perceived risk was rejected, as a result of its positive effect. Furthermore, perceived risk did not have a significant effect on intention to use and had a positive effect on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. All hypotheses about perceived risk were rejected. Conclusions: The findings suggest that it is important to make potential users aware of the usefulness of SCSS and to enhance the usability of the SCSS platform.
Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Japanese professional basketball's B. League postponed its regular season in late February 2020, which was then resumed in mid-March, before being suspended again only after one weekend. Eventually, the remaining regular season games (173 games in Division 1 and 117 games in Division 2) and all playoff games were cancelled. Purpose: This study mainly aimed to examine the professional basketball players' state of mental health after such unprecedented circumstances as the suspension and cancelation of league games in the middle of the season due to the pandemic of a communicable disease. Method: An electronic survey included members of the Japan Basketball Players Association in September 2020, which was 6 months after the season cancelation. The Japanese version of the K6 was used to assess players' mental health, and a K6 score ≥5 was defined as psychological distress. Results: There was a total of 108 eligible respondents. The ratio of K6≥5 (R5+) was 52% during the suspension period and 21% at 6 months after the cancelation. The R5+ was significantly higher in smaller teams than in bigger teams (odds ratio: 4.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.51-13.25). No relationship was found between R5+ and age, playing time, or the cumulative number of hometown infections. Conclusions: It was suggested that COVID-19 put half of the players at risk of psychological distress, namely, 30% acute and 20% chronic, and that the vulnerability of teams' business fundamentals affected players' mental health. Establishment of permanent counseling services for players' mental health care was recommended.
The environment in the mountainous rural areas of Nepal, where pre-modernized living conditions still exist, affects the children's physical abilities and sprinting and jumping abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical abilities of Nepalese boys living in mountainous rural reas, with a special focus on their sprinting and jumping abilities. Thirteen 11-year-old boys participated in this study. Height, weight, grip strength, and standing long jump (SLJ) were measured by the Japanese new physical fitness test procedures. Fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were calculated from the skinfold thickness measured by the skilled examiner. The 20m sprint was measured with a stopwatch and the foot strike types were categorized into forefoot strike (FFS), midfoot strike (MFS) and rearfoot strike (RFL), based on the lateral footage. In five rebound jumps (5RJ), the air time and the ground contact time (RJ-c) were measured by the mat switch to calculate the rebound jump height (RJ-h) and the rebound jump index (RJ index; RJ-h / RJ-c). Before 5RJ, the boys were instructed to jump high with the shortest possible ground contact time and they practiced several times. Both 20m sprint and 5RJ were tested barefoot. The height, weight, grip strength, and SLJ of the boys were much lower than those of the Japanese of the same age. In the relationship between physique and physical ability, grip strength was positively correlated with weight and FFM, while SLJ and FM was negatively correlated. RJ-index and RJ-h, and RJ-h and SLJ were significantly correlated. The foot strike types during the 20m sprint were categorized into 6 FFS, 2 MFL, and 5 RFS. Sprinting and jumping ability were non-significantly higher in FFS and MFS than in RFS. Detailed and continuous investigation is needed.
The purpose of this study was to develop a teacher's identity scale for extracurricular sports activities and to compare cognition of identity among attributes. The participants were 328 junior high school teachers (male: 225, female: 103, age: M=38.0, SD=11.62). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors (teacher identity and coach identity) that were composed of 39 items. In addition, the results indicated the reliability (internal consistency) and validity (factor validity, criterion-related validity) of the teacher's identity scale for extracurricular sports activities. The result of t test and one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between attributes. This study confirmed the reliability and validity of the teacher's identity scale for extracurricular sports activities. The result of comparisons among attributes suggested that different teacher's attributes were also different from the cognition of identity.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the differences in sport-life balance and mental health between student-athletes admitted to the university through sports recommendation admissions and student-athletes who were not. Participants of this study were freshperson athletes who were at a four-year private university, members of the athletic department, and who agreed to participate in the study. Participants were asked about demographic data, sport-life balance (current and ideal balance for each of the temporal and mental aspects), and mental health (subjective happiness, psychological stress, and summarized adjustment of feeling connected to a club). Of the 169 first-year student-athletes, 168 (136 males and 32 females) were included and one student was excluded for not consenting to the survey. Analyses of covariance, with gender, age, and residence status as covariates, showed that the gap between the ideal and current time balance was smaller for student-athletes admitted to the university through sports recommendation admissions. Mental health scores were found to be less favorable for student-athletes admitted to the university through sports recommendation admissions. However, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of psychological stress. Further research and practice should be carried out to develop the concept of “sport-life integration, ” which is a concept that overlaps and integrates athletic and other aspects of life, through achieving sport-life balance.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons why Japanese football players can play in the Bundesliga for multiple years. In this survey, we had interviews with five Japanese football players who played in the Bundesliga for over five seasons. The contents of the interviews were analyzed by SCAT (Steps for Coding and Theorization) method and extracted the same factors. As a result, it was found that they focused on building a relationship of trust with their coaches. They had the flexibility to change their playing style and position to match the coach's desired football style. In order to continue to be selected as a member of a match in the Bundesliga, not only high level football skills but also ability to adapt to the intentions of the coach are required. From the above results, it was suggested that in order to continue playing in overseas leagues, aspects other than soccer skills, such as tactics and understanding of the coach's ideas, are also important.
This study discusses what sorts of industries developed in Edo during the early modern period and their characteristics, with a specific look at the sports industry. The results of this study are as follows: 1. In the 17th century, the sports industry in Edo targeted the ruling samurai class. Samurai in Edo were fond of sumo tournaments and archery exhibition competitions; both were heavily influenced by the Kyoto area (then the capital). At the time, traditions carried on since the Middle Ages remained strong in the world of sports. 2. At the end of the 17th century, various urban sports industries targeting ordinary people arose as a result of a sharp increase in the number and economic clout of ordinary people in Edo. The manufacture and sale of sports equipment flourished, and the sports venue industry (supplying venues for events such as benefit sumo tournaments and archery games) also grew. 3. At the start of the 19th century, popular culture flourished, and the sports industry in Edo matured. The massive population of Edo, the increased economic clout of ordinary people, and the preservation of domestic tranquility promoted the further development of the urban sports industry. As the money economy of the city spread to farming villages in the countryside, the wave of Edo's sports industry reached the countryside, as exemplified by traveling benefit sumo tournaments.