The Rugby World Cup (RWC) was held in Japan in 2019 and 1.704 million (37,800 per game) domestic and international rugby fans attended the 45 games. In the RWC 2019, hospitality seats, in addition to normal seats, were sold. Hospitality seats provided hospitality service on top of a game ticket, including access to VIP and lounge areas, and dinners at exclusive hotels. Sports hospitality has been popular in professional sports such as NBA, NFL, MLB, and golf in the USA and soccer and tennis in Europe since the 1990’s. However, this concept had not been so popular in Japan before the RWC 2019. This study examined consumer patterns, motivation and satisfaction of hospitality seat buyers at RWC 2019. The data were collected from Japan Rugby Football Union member clubs (N=371). This population were asked questions regarding consumer spending, motivation (20 items), and satisfaction (15 items) in addition to basic demographics. The consumption by hospitality ticket holders at RWC2019 was significantly larger than those of normal seat holders in terms of transportation (2.40 times), accommodation (2.81 times), tourism (1.60 times) and game day souvenirs (2.05 times), as well as tickets (3.62 times). Using factor analysis, five motivation items : 1) World class events, 2) Reputation, 3) Advertisement, 4) Super play, 5) Rugby preference) and three satisfaction items : 1) Rugby watching, 2) Food drink and ticket delivery, 3) Tourism before or after the games were extracted. The analytical results showed some implications. Firstly, the results showed significant difference of consumption between hospitality ticket holders and normal ticket holders. Secondly, difference between motivation in gender, resident location and being a repeater was indicated. Thirdly, advertisement is a very important factor for hospitality ticket promotion.
The purposes of this study were to clarify the changes that occur in the relationship between the actors in the elite sports policy in ‘Z’ prefecture and to show the problem and its solution by the actors. As a methodology, the Dynamic Interdependence model and the Policy Network Theory were used. Before the National Sports Festival (after ; NSF) was held in the prefecture, sports administration was included in the health and physical education (after ; H&PE) division. Various actors had the same goal of the overall victory of the NSF. This consensus formed an “internal condition”. There was no testimony about “mutual reference” of other prefectures or “side-by-side competition” with other prefectures. The actors formed a positive-sum relationship. The H&PE Division controlled the prefectural sports associations and sports federations by its finance and personnel and made the relationships within various actors positive-sum. It was thought that the “policy community” led to the continuity of the measures. After the NSF, changes of “internal condition” due to changes in the political, economic, and social environment in the prefecture might have been a factor of the innovation of competitive sports measures. Furthermore, “mutual reference” and “side-by-side competition” were also considered as factors of its innovation. On the other hand, as the number of actors increased, the issue of cooperation among various actors was seen in the measures for the school athletic club. For constructing a system for promoting cooperation among the actors, a new council was established. Therefore, the relationships among the actors were shifted from a stable “policy community” to the “issue network” with a relatively low degree of interdependence. After this effort, policy innovations have been seen in the competitive sports measures, therefore it was suggested that smart HR management could be a solution to promote policy innovation.
The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate an online real time off-ice training program (OOTP) leading to the basic figure skating motions, and maintaining and improving motivation for adult novice skaters. In addition, the impact of image-based extrinsic feedback on OOTP was also investigated. Twenty-two novice figure skaters were divided into two groups (without / with feedback group). OOTP mainly consisted of skill training in basic figure skating imitation motions (BFSIMs : squat, spiral and skating IM) instructed by an expert once a week for four weeks. Video data of BFSIMs were obtained before and after OOTP. Angle α (between horizontal line and thigh segment), angle β (between horizontal line and thigh segment
of lifted leg), angle γ (Complementary angle between thigh and shank segment of support leg) and angle δ (between vertical line and shank segment of support leg) were determined in squat, spiral and skating imitation motions, respectively. Also, Questionnaire survey was carried out after OOTP for both groups. Angle α after OOTP (Pre) tended to be smaller than that before OOTP (Post). Angles β and γ of Post were significantly large and small (p=0.008, p<0.001) relative to those of Pre, respectively. Angle δ showed a tendency to increase after OOTP in both groups. For angles α, β and γ, the differences between Pre and Post were significantly negative correlated with the initial skill levels calculated by T-scores. A two-way ANOVA for the angle in each BFSIM showed no interaction between the two groups. These results suggests that although OOTP was effective to improve the skills of BFSIMs, there was no additional impact of the feedback on those of BFSMs. On the other hand, the results of the questionnaire survey indicated that the feedback was highly evaluated in terms of improving the skills of BFSIMs and maintaining and improving motivation.
The present study investigated how academic performance and athletic performance were related to the results of athletic students’ getting a job offer from companies which are preferred by college students in job hunting. One thousand seven hundred thirty-nine student athletes were surveyed regarding the result of job hunting, the difficulty of entrance exam of university, national/private university, getting a scholarship, classification of entrance exam, academic performance (GPA), athletic performance, and gender. Results showed that the difficulty of entrance exam of university is the most effective factor relating to the results of getting a job in companies preferred by college students. In particular, the effects of academic performance and athletic performance on job hunting were not common to all participants, but were limited to the universities with the highest admission difficulty.
Based on the self-determination theory, this study developed a scale that measured three basic psychological needs for exercise-competence, relatedness, and autonomy-and clarified the exercise experiences associated with each. A total of 549 adults (272 men ; 277 women), aged between 18 to 70 years, participated in this study. The scale fit the hypothesized three-factor model well (GFI > 0.95, AGFI > 0.95, CFI > 0.95, RMSEA < 0.07), and its reliability and validity were confirmed. (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 for competence, 0.92 for relatedness, and 0.85 for autonomy). Based on the results of the multivariate and multiple regression analyses using this scale, we examined the relationship between each basic psychological need and experiences related to exercise. The analysis revealed that the scores of all factors were higher for men compared to women. The competence score was higher for participants aged 18-29 years, compared to those in their 40s ; relatedness was higher for those aged 18-29 years, compared to those in their 30s to 60s or older ; autonomy was higher for those aged 18-29 years, compared to those in their 30s to 40s. Thus, we observed significant differences in the degree of satisfaction of each basic psychological need by gender and age, and relationships with others tended to change accordingly. In addition, upon investigation of the relationship between the three basic psychological needs and exercise experience, the influence of family members was found to be limited. However, the influence of friends and club activities was relatively significant. Thus, the psychological need for exercise is enhanced by positive experiences, such as socializing with friends and receiving support from schools and sports clubs.
This study focuses on high school athletics. The Japan High School Athletic Federation, which is the central sports organization of the high school athletics competition, and the National High School Athletic Federation, which is the governing body of the high school sports organization, manage the high school athletics category under the umbrella of the National High School Athletic Federation. This paper aimed to analyze the kind of relationship being built with the National Athletics Department, which is responsible for the actual management of the tournament, and to verify whether there is a conflict between the National Athletics Department and the National Athletics Department. Specifically, we analyzed the actual functions of the National High School Championships, the Japan Association of Athletics Federations, and the National High School Championships, and the level of support each organization had at the Inter-High School Championships held during the coronavirus pandemic. Then, based on the articles of incorporation and regulations of each organization, we organized the objectives, business contents, and decision-making of the three organizational operations, and observed conflicts. We found that the National High School Federation and the National High School Federation Land Specialization Department have four local conditions of conflict : “ambiguity of work in charge,” “reciprocity of tasks,” “common resources,” and “mismatch of social evaluation.”