Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ)
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
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  • A case study through the network of OPEN NAGAYA OSAKA
    Shihoko KOIKE, Akiko KOITO, Hitomi MINESAKI, Natsuki YUKITA, Shinobu F ...
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 223-232
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Many of the Osaka Modern Nagaya row-houses were constructed in the Taisho (1912–1926) period and the early years of the following Showa period, when housing development spread to Osaka’s suburbs to form high-end residential areas. This study summarizes how new dwellers move into Osaka Modern Nagaya, and how these row-houses are renovated, based on field surveys of seventeen cases of recent new dwellers, and consequently arrives at the findings described below. The subjects of this study are Osaka Modern Nagaya row-houses that can be studied through field surveys and interviews by taking advantage of the network of the OPEN NAGAYA OSAKA event and that new dwellers have settled in recently, mainly within the past ten years, to be used exclusively for living or used not only for living but for other purposes as well. Of the seventeen cases, three are owned and fourteen are rented, while four are used exclusively for living and thirteen are used also for other purposes.

     Below is a summary of the findings of this study:

     1) Almost no information about Osaka Modern Nagaya row-houses available to let is available to general property seekers who adopt the common way of searching real estate information and it is thus necessary to find special real estate websites or agents to move into them, which can pose a hurdle for potential dwellers. At the same time, however, this special condition, under which new dwellers move into these row-houses almost only through connections mediated by community-based real estate agencies or acquaintances, guarantees trust between tenants and landlords.

     2) When these row-houses are regarded as general real estate properties, it can be said that they are available under advantageous conditions, in terms of convenience of location and price per square meter. In addition, it has been found out that these houses have been highly appreciated and selected for their characteristics that are peculiar to nagaya row-houses, namely that they allow dwellers to use them not only for living but also for other purposes, and freely renovate them, by property seekers who particularly value such conditions. Although only a few of the dwellers had row-houses in mind from the beginning, the atmosphere of the traditional row-houses is very much loved by them.

     3) The study sums up row-house renovation costs and how they are allocated. The owned houses have gone through relatively pricey renovations, including seismic retrofitting, while it has costed the tenants of the rented houses an average of 2.76 million yen to have their houses renovated. Although tenants of rental row-houses need to bear the cost of renovating their houses themselves, it gives them an advantage of being allowed to freely renovate their homes.

     4) Bathroom and other water facilities are more likely to be renovated by the owners or tenants of the houses, while seismic and insulation retrofitting is less likely to be carried out.

     5) Eight items have been set to examine how traditional designs are retained after the renovations. Tokonoma and tatami rooms have been lost in nearly forty percent of the cases, while most cases retain the original planar composition, which has gardens and connected small rooms partitioned with doors and horizontal walls. In cases in which the houses, mainly owned ones, have undergone major alterations, including seismic and insulation retrofitting, many of their traditional designs have been lost. In one case, however, a bold renovation has resulted in a traditional frame becoming presented in an innovative fashion by making the house’s small roof open-timbered.

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  • Chong ZHAO, Xinlei ZHUANG, Misao KAWAI, Shuji FUNO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 233-241
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     This paper discusses house types and their transformation of Haikou of Hainan (China). Haikou as a port city is one of the hometown of overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, and as a famous historical and cultural city in China, has changed greatly in recent year. This paper first makes an analysis on the typology of houses, and then discusses the relationships between the different types to reveal their transformation processes.

     The inspecting scope of this paper is the old city (Suocheng) of Haikou, which was a defensive city of Fucheng before the Qing dynasty, In the late Qing dynasty, due to the development of coastal trade, the center of the city moved from Fucheng to Suocheng. So far, the city has maintained a good urban texture in the late Qing dynasty.

     Nowadays, the city is composed of 8 communities, the main public service facilities are evenly distributed, and the two large markets are concentrated in Zhenlong community. Many commercial shops are located in Boai road, Zhongshan road and Xinmin road. The biggest change in urban tissues space is in the north of Zhongshan road. In 2016, the urban development of Zhongshan road saw the Qilou reconstruction on both sides. With the development of tourism, lot of Qilou were demolished, and the current vacant land is used as a parking lot for sightseeing.

     Courtyard House style is considered to be the residential style brought by immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong, with the largest number of three-span forms. Different from the quadrangle dwellings in the north, Haikou quadrangle dwellings have no "wing rooms" on both sides of the courtyard, and the structure is mainly lintel construction, and the first hall has no hypostyle column. The existing quadrangle dwellings in Haikou are very few, just over than 20 buildings, and scatter in the urban area. Arcades can be divided into four basic types from A to D, mainly distributed in Zhongshan road, Changdi road, Boai road and Jiefang road.

     The evolution of Siheyuan is mainly reflected in two pattern of division and expansion. The division is mainly carried out in the direction of north and south with courtyard as the unit for property rights. The expansion is mainly to add a row of quadrangle dwellings or a row of Hucuo (auxiliary houses) horizontally. In addition, as a result of the increase of the living population, the function space of toilet or kitchen usually was added on the one sides of the courtyard to appropriately increase the use space. In the case of sufficient homestead, there are also examples of demolishing the original quadrangle dwellings and rebuilding the brick - concrete house. The evolution of the Qilou has three main modes: indoor courtyard, adding stairs and the position of stairs. At the same time, a multi-story and rental housing pattern had emerged.

     The origin of Qilou(arcade) is usually considered to be a reverse import from Singapore. In 1849, the only earliest one Qilou building appeared in Haikou, which was not built in a unified plan. The planned construction of arcades began in the 1920s. The Qilou building on Xinmin road is also not planned for unified construction. The Siheyuan along the street are used as a shop, and the arcade is added outside which only happened in Haikou.

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    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 243-252
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     This study focuses Kominkan which establishment was encouraged by sentence vice-minister "About installation management of Kominkan" of 1948. Kominkan is building expansion, renovation or changing of function many times by residents' needs. In recent years, public facility rearrangements have progressed due to a declining population, financial deterioration, facility aging, and reduction of Kominkan is also being considered.

     It also aims to obtain knowledge useful for regional revitalization, It is also aimed at grasping the maintenance process of Kominkan and analyzing the planar configuration and analyzing it to obtain effective knowledge when Kominkan maintenance is done in the future.

     We researched the maintenance information from establishment to the present and planar configuration by “Sonshi”, community paper and hearing. we drew chronological tables based on the extracted information, and this is analyzed. In Chapter3, we will analyze the facility maintenance process and in Chapter 4 we will analyze the planar configuration . In chapter 5 we try to Consider facility function of Kominkan from the results of chapters 3 and 4.

     We found the following contents.

     1)Kominkan is started by Organization. Organization is launched in school, branch or no building. Kominkan is often compounded to reduce the running cost and aggregate functions

     2)Planar configuration of Kominkan is could be divided main space and circulation planning, and main space greatly related to circulation planning.

     3) From the relation between the maintenance process and the plane configuration, we grasped the type of maintenance process of four types. These types establishment are related main space. Kominkan which hall main type is extend functionality by facility maintenance. Kominkan which entrance main type is Fulfilling functions by facility maintenance. Other than that, Kominkan which does not have the main room and consists of the middle corridor is rebuilding and building expansion, renovation or change of function.

     Based on the above, the plan configuration of the community hall is greatly concerned with the facility maintenance and emphasizes the function, so in the future when the miniaturization and other improvements are made, consideration is given to functions responding to residents' needs and the future social situation I think that planning corresponding plan is planned.

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  • A study of care environment provided at home type hospices Part 1
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 253-263
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020


     In Japan, which is becoming a high-mortality society in addition to a super-aging society, the establishment of a suitable residence for older people to spend their last days is an urgent concern. In a home type hospice, which is a residence wherein home care services are provided and covered under nursing insurance, 5-6 individuals live together. Although home type hospices are expected to play an important role in the future as one of the residential options for patients to spend the terminal stage of their life, no study has assessed the actual living conditions and physical characteristics of home type hospices.

    Reserch Objectives

     By understanding the actual environment, such as resident attributes and nursing care provision system, this study aimed to clarify the characteristics of home hospices, which primarily utilize existing residences.

    Research Methods

     The target residences were 28 business establishments and 37 buildings in Japan, which were certified by the Japan Home Hospice Association. Surveys were conducted through interviews with the administrator of each business establishment.


     1. There are age limitations for moving elderly people to facilities and residences providing home care services. However, home type hospices accept residents regardless of their age. While the majority of the residents are aged >80 years, there are some residents aged <60 years. 2. If we assess the reason and duration of occupancy of such facilities on the basis of disease type, cancer-centric home type hospices mostly accept patients in need of medical care, and most residents remain in the facility for a short duration, usually <1 year. These facilities provide hospice care for patients in the terminal stage of their life. Dementia-centric home hospices support patients with severe dementia. It is believed that these houses complement the insufficiency of facilities in different regions and the variety in the levels of care that is provided. Complex home hospices mostly accept patients in need of medical care and who could not live at their own residence. Thus, home hospices may accept residents regardless of the patient’s age and disease type, including older people and those with malignant diseases, respectively. In addition, these facilities function as a safety net for patients with severe conditions, who are difficult to deal with in the existing system . 3. Apart from home type hospices, there were 25 business establishments that were serving as home-visit nursing agencies, accounting for approximately 90% of the surveyed facilities. Cooperation between resident staff, which is responsible for providing daily living support, and home-visit nursing agencies is necessary to provide continuous support before moving patients. Therefore, in many cases, home-visit nursing was provided in the business establishments. 4. Renovation of buildings could be classified into four types, namely “improvement in building performance, ” “improvement in accessibility, ” “space expansion, ” and “barrier-free design.” Increase in the number of bathrooms/washrooms and toilets as well as renovation to accommodate wheelchairs were the most common. To utilize existing buildings as home type hospices, emphasis should be particularly given to the barrier-free design of plumbing fixtures. 5. Introduction through acquaintances was the most common method of property selection. It tended to reflect a higher level of connection and recognition with the local residents. This must be because of the owner’s connection with the region, which is shared with the new property owner.

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  • Shintaro SASAHARA, Tomonori SANO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 265-273
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020


     In recent years, a personal mobility vehicle has garnered interest as an inner-city transporter owing to its compactness and intuitive operability. It is divided into standing-type and sitting-type vehicles. Although personal mobility vehicles had been strictly regulated by road traffic laws in Japan, deregulation proceedings have recently begun. However, strategies to incorporate these vehicles, especially the standing-type vehicle into our lives have not been devised yet. Previous studies have evaluated the safety of standing-type vehicles under experimental situations, but only a few focused on users’ needs in practical situations. Our study focused on the standing-type vehicle, and we conducted a survey on its impressions and needs based on user evaluation to gain a psychological point of view as well as test its feasibility.


     This study is composed of two types of questionnaire. The First questionnaire was handed out to seventy-one participants. The first questionnaire asked them to evaluate seven types of vehicles, including the standing-type mobility vehicle. It contained eight evaluation items selected by authors in a five-step scale. The results were analyzed by comparing the standing-type vehicle with other vehicles based on personal attributes. The second questionnaire targeted seven hundred and seventy-four commuters to Tsukuba city and asked the following questions: 1.Where do you want to use the standing-type vehicle?

     2.What are the things that you would expect from a standing-type vehicle? Participants answered each question by selecting the options the authors provided or responded in comments if no option was chosen.


     Impressions on standing-type vehicle as compared to other vehicles: The vehicle was rated highly in terms of “fun,” but the ratings on “want to use daily,” ”safe,” and ”assistive” were low. In addition, we found that it varied widely in evaluations in comparison to other vehicles.

     Evaluation of standing-type vehicle based on personal attributes: The evaluation of standing-type vehicles depended on user attributes such as sex, age, residential area, and experience of riding the vehicle. While young people viewed the standing-type vehicle as a form of amusement, elder people were in favor of its practicality.

     Needs and expectations of the standing-type vehicle: The vehicle was given priority over walking as an indoor and outdoor mode of transportation. In addition, participants considered the application of tourism, amusement, and regional activation. However, the results suggested people did not want the standing-type vehicle for daily use as they felt it attracted attention. It is necessary to examine the factors of environments or situations which people want to use standing-type mobility vehicles in more detail.

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  • Tomohisa HOSODA, Mahito NAKAZONO, Hideomi SASAKI, Akira USHIJIMA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 275-284
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     1. Introduction

     After World War II, new junior high schools were established in many municipalities by the school education system reform. Later, when implementing the municipal merger of the Showa period, many of these new junior high schools were consolidated.

     2. Purpose

     This paper addresses the reorganization process of public junior high schools in the Shimane Prefecture. It considers the effects of municipal mergers on the integration and abolition of junior high schools up to 2016 and aims to clarify the relationship between the municipal policy merger and the consolidation of junior high schools in the Showa and Heisei periods.

     3. Conclusion

     1) In Shimane Prefecture, 257 new junior high schools were established by the pre-war local government bodies following policy by the minister of education. In 1950, 215 junior high schools were founded in 247 municipalities, and several local government unions operated some of the junior high schools. At first, the construction of new school-houses was the major challenge for small, local government. However, the school-houses were built in most of the areas before the municipal merger of the Showa period.

     2) After World War II, Shimane Prefecture had many municipalities with small populations, and it established many new, small-scale junior high schools. In 1950, the prefecture made a “basic policy of recommendation for installation to union junior high school,” but most local governments could not agree on making union schools. However, junior high schools were integrated into the many new municipalities after the merger. In short, it is assumed that merging municipalities in the Showa era triggered junior high school reorganization.

     3) The transition of the number of students are classified by features into five periods: Before 1962, when the increase and decrease of the number of students had been remarkable because of the war-damage recovery process and the first baby boom. From 1963 to 1979, when the number of students had rapidly decreased due to population movements in a period of high economic growth and declining fertility. From 1980 to 1987, when the number of students had increased slightly by the second baby boom. From 1988 to 2002, when the number of students declined continuously, and after 2003, when the municipal merger of Heisei had a profound effect on school consolidations. The features of the school consolidations differed depending on the periods.

     In Shimane Prefecture, the administrative reactions of every local government to the new school educational system after World War II and the municipal merger in the Showa and Heisei periods greatly influenced junior high school management to today.

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  • -A case study of yinjia sub district in shenbei new district, shenyang city, liaoning province-
    Ran ZHANG, Juichi YAMAZAKI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 285-295
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Taking Yinjia Subdistrict in Shenbei New District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province as an object for research, this paper aims to clarify the actual situation of farmland liquidity in all the villages of a township, explore the tendency of village differentiation, and put forward the rural planning problems to be faced in the future in China.

     In this paper, we set the following three research topics

     1) Based on the relevant information and statistical data of land transfer obtained by Yinjia Street Office, this paper analyses the actual situation of land transfer, explore the tendency of village differentiation and the orientation of each type of village.

     2) Based on the investigation of civil servants in Yinjia Subdistrict office and residents in the case villages, we grasped the actual progress of land transfer in various types of villages.

     3) On the basis of the above two topics, this paper puts forward the development direction and orientation of different types of villages in Yinjia Subdistrict and the subject of rural planning in the future.

     According these research topics, we conducted field surveys from September to November 2017, October to November 2018, and the results are as follows.

     ① In China's rural areas, with the population outflow and the promotion of land transfer, the operation status of agricultural land and the composition of farmers in rural villages have undergone considerable changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to recognize the direction of development of villages and future planning topics.

     ② In 2016, about 80 percent of farmers lent part or all of their land to other agricultural operators, and about 82 percent of farmland in Yinjia Subdistrict was lent out.

     ③ There are two ways of land transfer, absorption within the village or lend it to operators outside the village.

     ④ Of all the farmland transferred out, 38% was lent to farmers inside the village, and 62% to agricultural operators outside villages.

     ⑤ Based on the major object of land transfer, all the 15 villages can be divided into three types: “Absorption within the village type”, “Lending to operators outside the village type”, and “Agricultural company intervention type”.

     Large-scale peasant households and cooperatives in “Absorption within the village type” villages play an important role in the large-scale management of agricultural land and the development of agricultural modernization in Yinjia Subdistrict.

     Based on these findings, we point out that we should recognize the role of a village from the perspective of regional integration in the future.

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  • Lingquan Village in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi province
    Yingtao QI, Naoko SAIO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 297-306
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     With the rapid development of tourism, the possibility of habitability, traditional culture and life of most traditional villages in China is rapidly disappearing. In this paper, we selected Lingquan village located in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi province as research subject, which was registered in Chinese Traditional Village List in 2013. The purpose of this paper is to obtain knowledge of traditional culture inheritance and sustainable planning for maintaining habitation originality by analyzing the relationship between “old village” and “new village” and residents’ living situation.

     In chapter two, we clarified the transition of the residence maintenance mechanism on policies, plans and projects of living area, production area and faith area. We found that the policy caused many historical buildings destroyed from 1950s to 1970s. However, since Fushan temple has been designated as tourist resort in 2000, this village is being preserved and developed gradually for its livability.

     In chapter three, we classified dwelling houses of this village into five types as I. Traditional building prototype, II. Reuse of traditional building, III. Traditional inheritance, IV. Ordinary type and V. Development of traditional inheritance based on classification variables which are building age, layout, structure and material, and facade. The characteristics and issues of each type are figured out based on the classification. Many types of dwelling houses are mixed both in old village and new village, but we found that the trend of transition into Development of Traditional Inheritance type which is suitable for modern life is increasing and alongside the project “New Dwelling House” has been implemented. As a result, not only old village will keep its original habitation but also traditional landscape will lead to enhance the value both of cultural heritage and tourism. In addition, it is possible to enhance values of cultural heritage of the new village and maintain integral landscape of the village in future along with new houses that are built in new village by reusing materials of traditional buildings from old village.

     In chapter four, we classified living patterns of the resident into four types as A. living in old or new village, B. living back and forth in old and new village with change of season, C. living in city but owning vacant house in old village and D. living in the Fushan temple but owning vacant house in old village, and selected three examples from three out of four types and analyzed the relationship between migration behavior and transformation of houses. We found that the originality of traditional houses are returning in new houses due to migration behavior from old village to new village, and old materials of traditional houses are utilized after generation change. Moreover, the elderly who is living back and forth between the old and new village with change of season, plays a significant role as an intermediary to connect the old and new village. The regional faith and traditional culture could be passed on to the next generation in spite of the old or new village. However, the vacant house of traditional dwelling will be a difficult issue in the future due to an increasing number of residents migrating to the city.

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  • -Case of Ishikawa Town, Fukushima Prefecture-
    Mitsunari TERADA, Mariia ERMILOVA, Isami KINOSHITA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 307-316
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Due to depopulation children became a minority in Japanese society, hitting the lowest level on record (about 12 percent of total population). In rural areas, it led to the elementary school consolidation, and thus, changes in children's play environments.

     The studies on children’s play in rural area are lacking in up-to-date information. We put the goal to research the current situation. In this paper we present 1) three-generational comparison of children’s play parameters (playmates, time, space, nature play) and 2) research of the possible impact of the school consolidation process on children’s play, specifically, the factor of change in school transportation (walk, school bus, and car).

     For that we applied a questionnaire survey (children N=394, parents N=235, grandparents N=87), augmented by multiple interviews in the period from June to November 2016. The questionnaire was distributed through three primary schools located in Ishikawa town, Fukushima prefecture to children and filled in by the whole family.


     1) Three-generational comparison. Modern children’s play parameters (number of playmates, time, space, nature play) are significantly lower, compare to their parents and grandparents’ generations. Currently, about 30% of children who play after school have no friends. Playtime in outdoor spaces is decreasing across three generations. Currently, children's play is almost limited to private space (house) and public institutionalized space (school, park). 2) Nature play experience is not only decreasing with each generation, but the number of children having experience without adults’ assistance is also lessening. From interviews, we understand that children tend not to recognize nature spaces as a play space. 3) The number of prohibitions almost don't change over three generations. Interviewed adults expressed doubts about the fact that prohibitions affect children's exploration activity in nature. Parents rather saw the reason for little outdoor activity in the lack of interest in the children themselves and the lack of friends in the neighborhood. 4) Nowadays children prefer to make an appointment using a mobile phone, SNS. Since friends live in a distance, parents need to support children’s play by moving to a location by car, and in an overall family is getting more involved in children’s mobility. 5) We checked if the transportation by car and school bus compare to walking affect the children play parameters like playmates number, age difference, play time, space, nature play experience. We found that among walking children the percent of children with no friends is only 20%, whereas in the school bus users’ category 45% and among car users 40% children do not have friends. Children using the school bus have a significantly shorter playtime, compare to walking and moving by family car, probably due to the need to return in accordance with a rare bus schedule. However, we did not reveal a significant connection of transportation with other play parameters.

     For rural planning, we suggest designing institutionalized spaces, which would encourage children’s play activities in general and nature play in particular. This should follow with the support of the possibilities to expand the play activity to the wild nature, and non-institutionalized space.

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  • -Focusing on the role as a place of side work and hobby activities-
    Haruka MATSUURA, Haruhiko GOTO, Shun YOSHIE
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 317-327
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Encouraged by the "Work-Life Balance Charter" formulated in 2007, which recommended various ways of working and living, the promotion of side jobs in companies and the activities of people in their hobbies and leisure have become active.

     As the work environment changes, people not only realize hobbies and side jobs, but also create encounters and relationships with others through rental spaces dealt on the website.

     In this way, rental space, which has emerged in large numbers in urban areas and is being used for a variety of purposes, has the potential to become a place for new interaction.

     In this paper, we conducted basic research on 1, 000 rental spaces in the Tokyo area (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama), and clarified the basic performance and regional characteristics of rental spaces.

     In addition, by conducting interviews with owners of rental spaces where they engage in side-business or hobby activities, we were able to get close to the actual status of rental spaces management and usage, and clarified the social role of them.

     These results are considered to be important and have implications for the utilization of urban building stock for diverse ways of working and self-realization.

    1) Basic performance and regional characteristics of rental spaces

     Existing uses of rental space are classified into four categories: residential, commercial, entertainment and rental only. The recommended uses on the website are classified into four categories: corporate, personal, interactive, and presentation.

     Next, performance of RS as an existing building stock and performance of rental space for each recommended application were clarified. In addition, we were able to obtain 3 types of regional characteristics of rental space from the information of existing uses of them, and found 16 characteristic regions explained by them.

    2) Reason for occurrence of rental spaces and devices for operation

     As a result of interviews with rental space owner, we found that there were four reasons for the occurrence of rental spaces. Also, by starting rental spaces, we learned that these place has become a place to support and contribute, and a place where new encounters and relationships are created. Also, we found out that the owner carries out his own examination when renting a place.

    3) Actual situation of use of rental spaces and values for users

     As a result of analyzing the actual use of rental spaces obtained by interview survey to the owners, it was clarified that the users are seeking five values of place; “Space to be rented that meets the purpose needed in the short term”, ”Space for showing their hobby”, “Space for challenge of new work transformed from their hobbies”, “Space for realization of free self world view” and “Space for mental recovery”.

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  • A case study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Hideo SHIRAISHI, Yoshihisa WAKITA, Norio MAKI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 329-337
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     City blocks in the central district of Phnom Penh are composed of shophouses, defined as “shophouse blocks” in this study, fulfilled with mixed environment of inhabitants’ living and commercial activities. However, these blocks are in the process of reorganization due to redevelopment by plottage of multiple shophouses. It is concerned that current movement will resulted in the loss of built environment by unifying varied use of shophouse blocks and diversity of inhabitants. Diversity is one of a key to the sustainability of city blocks commonly regarded as a modern issue both in developing and developed countries.

     This study aims to clarify habitation characteristics of shophouse blocks utilizing a data base obtained from large scale interview surveys focusing on proximity of home and workplace and diversity of households. It also intends to overcome a limitation of previous studies on shophouse which could not verify such characteristics of shophouse blocks in a relative manner amongst the entire city. The results of this study are summarized as follows:

     1) An inhabitants’ cluster named “settle in residents/ residential zone”, where people stay in their home or their residential area long time, belongs to the largest group in city centers consisting of shophouse blocks; however, this cluster also dominate in other areas as well. Another cluster named “intermediate”, where the people take middle-range trip and stay their home or their residential area in a certain amount of time, is the second largest cluster in the city center. Comparing with other areas, it cannot be said that the living pattern characterized by proximity of home and workplace is a dominant pattern in shophouse blocks;

     2) There are three factors which affects trip length of inhabitants in shophouse blocks, that is, a) number of vehicles owned by household, b) occupation and c) coincident with home and workplace. Amongst these factors, the third factor has the strongest impact which makes the inhabitants less outgoing and take shorter trip length;

     3) Inhabitants who works at their home are distributed to the ground floor, especially the outer edge of shophouse blocks, and less observed on the upper floors. Due to the characteristics of their living pattern, different range of living sphere are formulated in “ground floor at outer edge of city blocks”, “ground floor at inside of city blocks” and “upper floors”; and

     4) Spatial distribution of household types does not have significant difference both in vertically and horizontally direction in shophouse blocks. On the other hand, high income households are distributed to the ground floor and the outer edge of shophouse blocks whereas the share of low income households tends to increase on upper floors.

     These results indicates several characteristics of shophouse blocks, that is, a) shophouse blocks have three different living spheres in “ground floor/ outer edge of block – ground floor/ inside block – upper floors”, b) diversity of household types characterized by even distribution of varied household types across the entire blocks and hierarchy of household income distribution in vertical direction, and c) shophouse has flexibility to fit into variety of residents’ living needs and life stage which contribute to maintain sustainability of shophouse blocks.

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  • A case study of two Home Zones in the UK
    Wakana HARA, Namiko MINAI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 339-349
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Historically, streets have been designed mainly for the use of automobiles. However, converting to low carbon society and the shift to an ageing population have led to a change in street planning that is more human-oriented. Specifically, streets in residential areas are important spaces of communication for residents. These communication areas extend healthy life expectancies, provides benefit for local children, and enable residents to support one another during disasters. Europe has long been the leading automobile society, and the Woonerf concept in the Netherlands has led the streets to not only be for the use of vehicles but also clearly makes them available for residents. Japan is learning from Europe and has adopted district street countermeasures in the 1980s. However, Japan’s conception of the street hasn’t been focused on spatial constitution and utilization as a “living place”. In recent years, there have studies and cases that examine the use of roads and streets as shared human spaces. Nevertheless, the focus is on main streets and shopping streets and there are different perspectives on streets in residential areas with regards to the concept of “living place”.

     This study is intended to provide effective knowledge on the requirements for the sustainable management and utilization of community spaces. We studied two Home Zones -the UK equivalent of a Woonerf- that were implemented about 15 years ago in order to investigate the current situation of the implemented areas, the usage, and maintenance of the community spaces, and the involvement of residents and local communities in planning processes and management up to the present day.

     In conclusion we discussed sustainable management and utilization from the view point of “Activity”, “Place” and “Entity”. 1) “Community activities that meet residents’ needs”. Residents in regeneration areas, such as Northmoor, require support to improve local living standards. In addition, residents with higher living standards require support to improve their quality of life. 2) “Deals with places where people meet”. In these case studies, the permanent community centers are in the center of the area and are bases for community activities. Furthermore, a casual place, such as the launderette, have the potential to be used by residents for daily social interactions. Thus, it is important to ensure that the operating staff are always on duty. 3) “People and organizations who contribute to community improvement”. Home Zone value is a process heavily oriented in building consensus among residents. Here, street representatives play a huge role. Home Zone projects encourage capable residents who desire community improvements to involve themselves in the process. These residents maintain involvement in conduct with the community association and focus on community conditions. Community associations are central actors in supporting the community activities. They are sustained through the involvement of capable residents and organizational support systems.

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  • History of damage certificate and damage inspection as a criterion of victim support in Japan
    Norio MAKI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 351-359
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     In Japan, victims support is accredited based on the four grade of building damage such as Severe (Zenkai), Major (Daikibo Hankai), Minor (Hankai), Slight (Ichibu-sonkai). Those who can enter an interim housing is limited to the person suffering from over Minor damage. And the target of Victims Support Act is over Major damage victims, and those who accredited to Severe damage can get maximum JPY 3,000,000 public support for their life and housing recovery. However, in US, more holistic approach is used to decide the support of victims by interviewing them. Now there are discussion about what is the good way to decide the category of victims’ support. Some city introduces disaster case management system in Japan. This paper discusses about the possibility of changing Japanese policy on disaster victims support based on housing damage severity. The possibility of changing will be discussed analyzing the policy of victims support in previous disasters.

     Twelve big earthquake and tsunami disasters during 1945 to 1995 (from the end of world war 2 to the 1995 Kobe earthquake) are the target of analysis. The reports of disaster response and recovery of those disasters were reviewed, and the article on damage inspection and victims support were collected. From the analysis, the following things were clarified.

     1) Before the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the government damage inspection was conducted to apply the disaster relief act.

     2) Though main purpose of the government building damage inspection was for the disaster relief act application, the result was also used for the criteria of victims supports. And victim’s database was used for the victim’s support in previous disasters.

     3) The application for housing reconstruction loan were decided based on the other criterion in addition to the government damage inspection results. The government damage inspection result was not realized as the only criteria of victim’s support.

     4) There existed various issues about building damage inspection before the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Simple inspection sheet was used in the 1981 Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake Disaster. The contribution of each parts such as roof and wall to total damage was considered in this sheet.

     5) Policy of victim’s support is changing corresponding to the situation. Victim’s support based on the severity of building damage is new concept after the 1995 Kobe earthquake. It is possible to change the policy reflecting the issues about recent disasters.

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  • A case study in Higashi Matsushima city after The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
    Yuko ARAKI, Sotaro TSUBOI, Akihiko HOKUGO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 361-370
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     It has been pointed out that during large-scale disasters, some evacuees cannot receive necessary support since they evacuate to places other than the shelters pre-designated by the government. This is due to the fact that prior evacuation plans do not match the actual evacuation situation, and that the information collection and support system are not examined thoroughly beforehand. This research aims to contribute to the provision of measures on how to make preparations for the occurrence of non-designated shelters and the evacuees, and provide immediate support activities for the evacuees after the disaster. From the case study of Higashi-Matsushima City during the Great East Japan Earthquake, we examined the tendency of occurrence and causes of evacuation within the coastal plains, and showed that non-designated shelters were also found in flooded areas of coastal plains.

     In Chapter 2, we identified the main characteristics of the target city and the estimated damage to it, and compared the actual disaster response with the evacuation plans prepared by the local government. In Chapter 3, we showed the main features of non-designated shelters by comparing the situations in designated shelters against those in non-designated shelters during the disaster. In addition, we demonstrated that a large number of non-designated shelters were found within flooded areas.In Chapter 4, we provided the locations of the shelters and the number of evacuees on the map together with the locations of flooded areas in order to understand the spatial distribution of shelters and the evacuee population. In Chapter 5, we showed how the non-designated shelters were established in the flooded areas and inland areas, and examined the disaster response in these shelters.

     Based on the findings in the preceding chapters, Chapter 6 studied the tendency of occurrence of non-designated shelters in coastal plains and examined it from three different aspects, which were employed in previous research on Kamaishi City’s case: 1) damages due to tsunami and evacuation situations, 2) relationship between designated shelters and non-designated shelters, and 3) the actual function of facilities that were used as shelters during the disaster.

     From these results, we showed that in coastal plains, a large number of non-designated shelters were found in areas with significant elevation, such as hilly areas, and in locations surrounding the inundated areas, which confirms the results of previous research on cases along ria coasts. We also showed findings of a large number of non-designated shelters within the inundated areas of coastal plains. This was due to the fact that evacuation routes were long and there was traffic congestion, preventing people from evacuating to the designated areas before they were inundated by the tsunami. In addition, many evacuees found that moving out from temporary evacuation sites was not easy after inundation.

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  • Focus on analysis of development trends in the three major metropolitan areas and case study of the Minami-Kawachi district, Osaka Prefecture
    Mitsunori YAMAZOE, Hongwei HSIAO, Koichi KANA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 371-381
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual state and issues of development based on the permission excluded from 3411 and 3412 ordinances in urbanization control areas. By analyzing the national trend as well as case study, this study aims at obtaining applications for development permission system (DPS) as resolutions for shrinking and aging society.

     In order to realize the actual state and issues of DPS, this study conducts as following: 1) actual state analysis: transition of number and area of development permission (DP) as well as development density (DD) in the three major metropolitan areas during 2008-2015 is analyzed base on the DP data. Considering the DD, this study mainly focuses on zone with current potential for development (called as “zone designated for development”), excluding designated areas under the Forest Act, the Agricultural Land, rivers, lakes and marshes, as indicated by DP data for urbanization control areas in the three major metropolitan areas. 2) case study: in order to realize the issues of DP, detailed analysis is conducted based on the field research in districts of high DD according to the viewpoint of traffic, location as and land use situation.

     In contrast to the results of comparisons by number and land area of projects, prefectures with the highest project densities (excluding developments under ordinances 3411 and 3412) proved to be, in order, Aichi, Saitama, Osaka and Kanagawa, while those with the highest area densities were, in order, Osaka, Kanagawa, Kyoto and Aichi.

     According to the case study focus on the Minami-Kawachi district in Osaka Prefecture, it is clear that land use under ordinances 3411 and 3412 are predominantly residential, while DP excluded from 3411 and 3412 has a wide range of uses including shops, factories, medical and welfare facilities, public utilities, educational institutions, leisure and agricultural facilities, and cemeteries and indoor burial facilities. Further, the absence of roads connecting areas along trunk roads to hinterlands is also found.

     The results of this study clearly support the following conclusions.

     1) Considering the gap between DP and DD, in order to estimate the situation of DP, DS that is closer to the realities might be an important indicator

     2) To prevent urban sprawl in the edges of urbanization promotion areas or supply land for factory for the purpose of avoiding expansion in existing urban areas or support the existing communities in rural areas, appropriate application of the ordinances would be desirable.

     3) With regard to roads connecting areas along trunk roads to hinterlands and compatibility among multiple uses for an area of land, the embedding of future road network plans and the land use designation under ordinance 3412 or rural residential district should be considered.

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  • Sheng DANG, Shichen ZHAO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 383-392
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Published in A.D. 1550, Xiang Yue is the most comprehensive text on fortification among the preserved Chinese literature. The essay took 148 recorded stationed fortresses as research objects in the Xuanfu and Datong Garrisons, where the book was composed. Three main aspects of fortification as a) site selection; b) wall design; c) tower layout were selected to analyse the samples before and after the publish of Xiang Yue. It was concluded that the book’s planning scheme was based on local experiences and had been carried out honestly in several cases. Afterwards, its principles were adopted in a broader range.

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  • Yasuhisa TATSUKAMI, Shunsuke YOKOYAMA, Tetsu TOKUONO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 393-403
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     The purpose of this study paid its attention to the support system of vacant house measures of the local governments of the whole country and clarified perspective. There was originality and performed an action with a clear policy and chose the local government which achieved result. Examination content is to grasp the actual situation. And it is to show the future support policy which there is.

     The support system of many local governments simply imitates a supporting menu of utilization and the demolition that the country prepared. A budget is limited. It is extremely difficult to hold down the gross weight of the vacant house to an appropriate level.

     On the other hand, there is the local government making a large amount of budget. And there is the local government performing other actions without the assistance to country. And there is the local government working on vacant house measures positively.

     The support system worked on is renovation, demolition, others now. The purpose of the renovation support is emigration domiciliation and the formation of the local community. The demolition support has the community with an individual. The personal purpose is domiciliation promotion and the local use. There is the demolition without the use purpose. As for the public technique, an owner contributes an vacant house to the government office. And a government office dismantles it. An area performs maintenance after the demolition. Other support plays a role to promote renovation and the demolition. The classification rearranging of the support system can clarify positioning. And the classification rearranging can examine a problem, the problem of the support system and possibility.

     Possibility to the qualitative correspondence of vacant house measures became clear by making a support purpose . Wide development of the width was able to call at from "local and profit utilization" to the area of "the local and demolition" or "the area and individual" more by giving local government's original other support projects to renovation support, the demolition support of the standard menu. A feeling of resistance by casting public funds into personal property by administration for the qualitative correspondence becomes clear. There is originality, and the vacant house measures of the local government performing the action with a clear policy are enforced for the security relief security of house environment maintenance, the citizen of problem relaxation, the built-up area of the local community activation, emigration domiciliation promotion, slope place city area and the achievement of a policy objective clear each.

     These actions will go to the qualitative correspondence as well as quantitative correspondence. And it leads to relaxation of a feeling of resistance of the public money expenditure to personal property.

     The way of the support by the future local government is to assume the support to an vacant house owner means to solve a local problem. It is to promote setting and the public and private sectors cooperation of the support system with clear directionality. Future vacant house measures are to support an vacant house as local resources. And qualitative correspondence is important to the vacant house measures.

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  • Yu TAZUKA, Tomomichi OKUZAKI, Akira FUJISAWA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 405-412
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     This subject discussed reconstruction of the main shrine of “KATORI-Shrine” in Hananoi Kashiwa-city Chiba. The purpose of this subject is explaing about the professional ability of the master carpenter ‘‘MASATOSHI MIMURA’’ and the carver ‘‘TSUNEHACHI ISHIHARA’’ in construction of shrine and temple architecture used many decorations of building.

     The main shrine of “KATORI-Shrine” was reconstructed in the fifth year of KAEI. It was needed a vast sum of money for the reconstruction and accomplished it forty year later including the years for fund-raising.

     “MASATOSHI MIMURA” took the master carpenter and “TSUNEHACHI ISHIHARA” took the master carver, they participated in the construction with their clan. They decided the extent of contract work and worked in cooperation with each other. “MASATOSHI MIMURA” contracted to construct until the foundation of roof and the ground pattern of carving. “TSUNEHACHI ISHIHARA” contracted to carve lumber and make the carving for decorate wall board.

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  • Comparing with the master plans designed by Uzo Nishiyama and Kenzo Tange
    Hikaru MOMMA, Takahiro TAJI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 413-423
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     Tomoya MASUDA (1914-1981) was the former professor of department of architecture, Kyoto University, an architect and an architectural theory researcher. But the relations between his works and his thoughts have been studied little up to now. Then, the author studied that relations to evaluate his work through revealing the characteristics of the master plan of EXPO'70 designed by Masuda (Banpaku-keikaku). In the plan of Banpaku-keikaku, Masuda emphasized discernment and manipulation of the topography of the site, the word “topography” was also highlighted in his doctoral thesis (1955); Therefore, the concept of topography on Banpaku-keikaku is the focus in this paper. More specifically, this paper analyzed and compared with each of three master plans designed by Uzo Nishiyama, Kenzo Tange and Masuda in respect of design concept, site planning, and understanding and manipulation of the topography.

     In Nov. 1965, Kyoto University started preliminary study for EXPO’70. And then in Dec. 1965 Nishiyama and Tange were appointed to oversee drafting the original plan. Nishiyama designed the first and the second draft of the master plan, and then Tange designed the third and the fourth draft of the master plan. Masuda's plan was designed as a part of preliminary study before the first draft by Nishiyama. This fact was founded in a unpublished blueprint book 『JEXPO'70会場計画』, that mainly includes the Masuda's plan designed in 10th Mar. 1966.

     he author analyzed Nishiyama's plan in the chapter 3, Tange's plan in the chapter 4, and Masuda's plan in the chapter 5. As a result of analysis and comparison, we found these characteristics of Masuda's plan.

     In respect of design concept, we found that the main purpose of Masuda's plan was showing the theme of the EXPO'70, and to realize the idea that named Keikan-ka(making a new landscape that has a new meaning) and Kankyo-ka(making all of the components of the site to balance and be harmonized.). That concept was totally different from Nishiyama and Tange's concepts that mainly focused on realization of the theme and fulfill the requirements.

     In respect of site planning, we found that Masuda's plan has the largest artificial lake, pavilions are disposed in certain area according to its character, the placement of Theme Zone (named Symbol Area in Nishiyama' and Tange's plan) is different from Nishiyama's and Tange's plan, and the theme of the EXPO'70 is not realized as facilities or buildings of the site.

     In respect of understanding and manipulation of the topography, we found that Masuda explained the site as a part of bigger geographical division than the site, necessity of three-dimensional site planning. Additionally, Masuda didn't place an artificial land in the center of the site while Nishiyama and Tange did. And an artificial lake does not have practical functions but is intended to make a panorama of the site and related to order of pavilions.

     Conclusion is that, in Masuda's plan, Keikan-ka is realized to make the site seen as one united area that means exposition itself or the whole of its site. And Kankyo-ka is realized to make a connection of arrangement between pavilions and the artificial lake; Moreover, these two ideas are mainly realized by discernment and manipulation of the topography includes an artificial lake. In other words, the artificial lake is the pivot of the Masuda's plan, namely they emphasized discernment and manipulation of the topography.

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  • Shunsuke OBATA, Taisuke YAMAZAKI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 425-434
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     The Imperial Palace, served as a building for the ceremonies and official affairs of the Emperor and Empress, was completed in 1968 in the Nishinomaru area, and has been used up to the present days (as of August 2019). About the original design, it is known that the draft plan was made by the Imperial Household Agency before assignment of Junzo Yoshimura, author of the final implementation plan. However the draft by IHA itself has yet been clarified. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the IHA draft plan design process, analyze the design content by using official documents of IHA, and show how the Japanese Emperor was represented as the symbol of Japan as a democratic nation it became after WWII, reflected in the ceremony plan and appearance design.

     Regarding the design process, basic design conditions such as site, structure type and the area of required rooms were formulated within the first half of two-year survey period. Within the latter half of the survey period, specific design plans had been prepared on the premise of the design conditions.

     According to the design conditions, the number of ceremony attendants was estimated to be significantly higher than before. In order to deal with increased number of attendants at the ceremony, the area of the rooms for audience was calculated with a consideration of simultaneous use in a style that allows Emperor and Empress to hold the audience by passing through the row of attendants. As for the dining room, a space large enough for the Emperor and all attendants to come together was required in order to treat the attendants equally, it was also considered to provide a movable partition to create a large space. Although for construction it has been decided to use steel-frame reinforced concrete, the intention for the external appearance was to represent Japanese tradition by the idea of a traditional Japanese-style design using separated blocks and sloped roofs.

     The study of the plan was aimed at the coexistence of rationalization of the motion line and expression the authority of seiden―the most formal building. In the floor plan, main rooms were arranged around the courtyard close to each other, while seiden was surrounded by corridors. The passage of Emperor and Empress in big ceremonies was organized through the row of rooms used for audience around the courtyard. On the other hand, for small ceremonies the idea was to shorten daily motion line of Emperor and chamberlains by locating small scale rooms for frequent use around Emperor and chamberlain office.

     With regard to the external appearance, the design was pursued in order to create monumentality without intimidating people. In the final plan, removing the walls of the corridors on the sides of the seiden by leveling up the floor to the second level allowed to create an image of openness for the building appearance. Seiden followed the design of traditional wooden structure, it had an open appearance with independent columns lined in front. For the roofing material, kawara (Traditional Japanese roof tiles) was adopted in consideration of harmony with concrete, but the slope of roof was low in order not to emphasize the roof surface.

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    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 435-441
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     TAHARA Shinnosuke was known as the designer of the Yamagata Prefectural Government Building and the Assembly Hall, which are nationally designated important cultural properties. “Restoration of Yamagata Prefectural Government Building and Assembly Hall Vol. 1” (hereinafter referred to as “Restoration”) shows TAHARA's history and career, and lists the names of his works involved. By the way, TAHARA became the apprentice of Condor from an early stage and worked at the Condor office, so many of the works that TAHARA engaged in can be considered as Condor’s works.

     However, in the past, 16 cases considered to be Condor’s work and shown only in TAHARA's career were considered “unclear whether planned or implemented”. That was because only the construction name was quoted from TAHARA's “CV” in “Restoration”.

     Therefore, this article considered TAHARA's original “CV”, and examined 16 constructions. As a result, the French Embassy was not described in the original “CV”, and the Yokohama Yamashita-cho 5 ban Club Hotel was judged to be the same building as the Yokohama Yamashita-cho United Club. The following is an overview of the remaining 14 works. Of the 14 cases, 7 of Tsukiji Metropole Hotel, Yokohama Yamashita-cho 85 ban Maples Club, Yokohama Yamashita-cho 101 ban seicha kaisha souko oyobi seichaba, Yokohama Yamashita-cho kou 90 bankan Uotaa shi shokai, Yokohama Yamashita-cho 30 bankan, Akasaka-ku Omote-cho Shippa shi jutaku, Yokohama Yamashita-cho 111 ban US Navy Coal Storage are Conder’s works that TAHARA was involved in the construction. The Mitsubishi sha Osaka shiten was the work of SONE Tatsuzo, although TAHARA was involved in the construction, and Waseda Okuma hakushaku tei onshitsu was the work of TAHARA himself. And four cases of Aoyama-gakuin kosha oyobi kishukusha, Yokohama Yamashita-cho A 3 ban Robinson shokai oyobi soko, Yokohama Yamashita-cho 8 ban Standard shokai, Kojimachi-ku Eiraku-cho Takada shokai honten have not been implemented, and Yokohama kyoryuchi 30 bankan dai 1 gou oyobi dai 2 gou soko warehouse is unknown.

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  • Byungjin KIM, Masaki KOIWA, Takeshi NAKAGAWA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 443-451
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     It is considered that it is difficult to build a well-constructed building without proportional or dimensional relationships of precise parts, so it is estimated that Korea has some sort of numerical determination method now. Also, in China there is "Ying Zao Fa Shi" of technical books and it is doubtful that there is no similar technology in Korea with the same architectural flow, given that there are ways to decide Kiwarisho in Japan. Therefore, focus on this point Sujanpok as an example, the objective is to examine the Korean design method through comparative analysis of existing building dimensions and its proportional method.

     Specifically, Sujangpok is the only thing remaining as a proportional method among Korean building materials. However, Sujangpok has not been discussed, studied, etc., it is an on-site carpenter's field technology, its origin is unknown. So, in this paper we will clarify whether Sujangpok is applied to Korean buildings, and prove Sujangpok which is among the proportional method of Korea.

     The conclusion of study is as follows:

     1. It is understood that there are many buildings which can be judged that Sujagpok is used among the buildings to be analyzed. As a result of each Type, A: 33, B: 12, C: 26, D: 4, E: 1 with no dimensions listed in the report, and 2 with no Nukizai became. With regard to D, it was confirmed that the dimensional difference of the four members occurs due to the replacement of the members at the time of disassembly and repair, that there is no variation in the dimensions of each member, and no description of the dimensions. Among the 78 buildings considered, 71 buildings (a total of A, B, and C) excluding 7 unmatched and unknown buildings (A, B, and C total) had the result that Sujangpok was used (91%). When examining the standard material in Sujangpok, it is thought that Hijiki is more likely to be the standard material than Nuki.

     2. The members determined from Sujangpok are Makito, Nuki. Daito are not matched. From this it is true that in the case of Korea the square and the width are the same size and the width is the column diameter . Daito confirmed that when planning the size, rather than Sujangpok, the column diameter takes precedence.

     3. From the examination according to the style, Dapo is a theory that plans mainly on Kumimono, but from this analysis, it is confirmed that the building to be analyzed is often multiplied by an integer multiple from Sujangpok.

     4. It is possible to confirm that the occupancy rate of A Type increases by analyzing the result values ​​ of the 17th and 18th centuries in which the comparison group is formed. It can be inferred that the ratio of 50% or more of the 18th century figures is the technology possessed in this era. Looking at the overall occupancy rates of the 18th century A, B, and C types, the overall occupancy rate is 96%, excluding the 12th building.

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  • Emergence of Church and School Complex in the 1950s
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 453-462
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     In the 1950s in Hong Kong, the Catholic Church devised a new type of church building, Church and School Complex. St. Francis of Assisi Church and School was one of such complexes (1955). It was engineered because of increasing refugee population, a free school space granted by the government as the result of inter-dependent Church-government relations, and Church’s own efforts to procure funds. The architect Chien Nai-jen designed this complex in adaptive Chinese style presumably because of his deep exposure from the 1930s to 50s to such architectural movement in China, the U.S. and Hong Kong.

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  • The Research on the formation of the residence area along the Viale dei Colli in Florence (Part 2)
    Ryoko KAITA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 768 Pages 463-472
    Published: 2020
    Released: February 28, 2020

     This study analyzes the process of the development of the Viale dei Colli residential district in a hilly area in the late 19th century as part of an urban expansion project conducted when Florence was the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The previous section examined the details of the regulations governing the buildings and gardens of this district during the contracting procedure and after their construction. It further ascertained the intentions and methods of the architect Giuseppe Poggi, who led the creation of these regulations. This paper analyzes the manners in which the diagrams devised by Poggi to indicate site classifications and building positions differ from the villas that were actually built. Particularly, it compares the zoning classifications and building sizes of each villa and ascertains the aspects of the land sale and villa building processes in which Poggi’s wishes were followed and the areas in which they were not. The paper will also discuss whether or not the conditions stipulated with regard to the buildings and gardens before their construction sufficiently controlled the site classifications and building sizes.

     The following three points were ascertained:

     1. In terms of the road plan and block arrangement, areas where the incline of the newly built road was the gentlest were chosen. Hence, the plan understood and considered the hilly terrain. Moreover, it took existing buildings to be the standard, and the block arrangement was such that every site would be in contact with the newly-built road.

     2. With regard to the site classification and building positions, classifications pertaining to large and small are present in the instructional diagrams. However, the large ones became larger because of the consolidation of multiple sites, whereas the small ones encompassed both small- and medium-sized building sites. Thus, three categories of site sizes appeared overall. However, the positioning of the buildings generally followed the positions laid down in the instruction diagrams.

     3. The scrutiny of the distribution of the building sizes and sites by area size category revealed that the large-sized constructions followed the instructional diagram, whereas the small- and medium-sized ones were not arranged separately. Instead, they were ordered in a manner that no building touches another of the same size and density. Hence, a uniform density is achieved in the district as a whole.

     Therefore, the investigation revealed that there was actually a qualitative difference between the small and large-scale villas imagined in the instructional diagram. Further, although the building density of each site was higher in reality than imagined in the district as a whole, the mixing of small- and medium-sized villas and equivalence of measures in all areas in the relaxation of area requirements, same-sized sites, and villas were not lined up in rows together. Rather, the distance between them was maintained, accomplishing the regulation of building density in visual terms.

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