It has been a growing concern to educators not only to support students to acquire the knowledge and skills of each subject but also to develop the students' broader competencies for their life and society. Dewey (1900) discussed it in School and Society. Rychen and Salganik (2006) proposed key competencies in the OECD DeSeCo project; use tools interactively, interact in heterogeneous groups, and act autonomously. In terms of space for interaction and socializing students, this paper focuses on the central common space like a square in schools, 'common core, ' Kuhn (2012) mentioned as one of the four characteristic features new schools share.
This study investigated the spatial composition and use of common cores in five upper secondary schools, 'gymnasier' in Denmark, where central common spaces in upper secondary school architectures have been developed since the 1970s. First, functions, spatial composition, and environmental elements of the common core were examined by analysis of architectural drawings and on-site surveys. Next, interviews with teachers on the use of common cores and behavior observations of students and teachers were conducted.
It was found that school buildings with common cores were designed not to have too many total floor areas by the ambiguity of common cores; they had multiple functions, such as lounge, auditorium, canteen, and open classrooms at the same time or by time-sharing. One of the sample schools also deleted another function from the school building programme by using public facilities instead and managed spaces for class efficiently with an online reservation system. In terms of defense, natural surveillance was taken into account in the five common cores, where students were staying near the entrance. For administrations or rooms of teachers or staff are adjacent to them. Some common cores were found to be composed of various scaled realms.
Teachers considered common cores more importantly as flexible spaces for interactions, events, and students' autonomous actions than specific functional spaces such as the canteen, auditorium, entrance. They appreciated the common core's visibility, transparency, and having the heart of the whole school. On the other hand, some students grew more independent with the openness of common cores, but others might not overcome it. Acoustic absorption, the balance of open and closed space, and creating various spaces were considered indispensable. A mid- to long-term plan for maintenance should be drawn up on the grounds of their air volume and the fact that some air conditioning were left broken there.
Students selected relatively small enclosed realms for group work in class and self-study rather than large main spaces. Spatial articulations and segments were, therefore, considered to be effective as learning environments in the common cores. The characteristics of common cores in the five schools were clarified through exploring the relationship between space composition, use, and behavior of students and teachers.
This study proposes a new mathematical optimization method to evaluate exhibition spaces. Speciﬁcally, we focus on the asymmetry of visual cognition and clarify the diversity of spatial analysis based on multiple criteria.
In architectural spaces used by many people, such as art museums, people usually incorporate the existence of others when they determine the position to pause. In such exhibition space that multiple people exist at the same time, it is important to develop an architectural plan not to recognize each other as much as possible because it directly links to the usability of space.
The visual intersection of people is one of the critical factors to analyze such exhibition spaces. The important thing is the asymmetry of visual cognition between two people. In other words, the amount by which we perceive others and that to which others perceive us is diﬀerent. In this research, we pay attention to such asymmetry of visual cognition and evaluate spatial acceptance based on mathematical optimization.
For the purpose, we propose new mathematical optimization models which focus on the positions and the number of appreciators. We discuss spatial acceptance in terms of the following two factors: 1) The maximum number of appreciators without any mutual recognition; 2) The relationship between the increase of visual cognition and that of the number of appreciators. In the formulation, we compare various objective functions, for example, the diﬀerence between average value and the maximum value, as well as the diﬀerence between the active and passive visual recognition. These comparisons help us to understand the diversity and the diﬃculty in evaluating spatial acceptance with multiple criteria.
The methods are applied to an idealized square region and Hiroshi Senju Museum Karuizawa to describe characteristics as an appreciating space. Through the numerical calculation, we clarify several trade-oﬀ relation-ships which characterize spatial acceptance of the museum. The example shows that it is diﬃcult to minimize “both” values of active visual cognition and passive visual cognition. This result would be a severe insight to evaluate such exhibition spaces.
The following three results are obtained with our study:
1. The maximum number of appreciators without mutual visual intersection.
2. Relationship between an increase in visual cognition and an increase in the number of appreciators.
3. The spatial position of appreciators in the exhibition space.
All of these are key factors to illustrate the characteristics of exhibition space.
We consider that our model can be applied to initial study phase in architectural design. Since the model quickly returns the spatial position of appreciators, we can compare various candidate layouts. In the future, it is excellent if we can construct a mathematical framework which outputs the optimal layout subject to required spatial characteristics. We believe that this study is the ﬁrst step to achieve such an ultimate goal.
This paper aimed to demonstrate a comparative analysis of the co-occurrency of architectural signs on a sketch map between car drivers and non-drivers, using co-occurrence networks. Based on the classification method in Part 2, and focusing on meaningful aspects, the cognitive mapping process was modeled as a thinking process through “architectural signs,” following C.S. Peirce’s concepts of “sign,” “object,” and “interpretant.” On this basis, the co-occurrence of two architectural signs was understood as the relation between “sign” and “object.” Co-occurrence types of all architectural sign pairs were then classified into three categories based on Peirce’s concepts of “icon,” “index,” and “symbol.” Focusing on the relation between “sign” and “object” is the same as focusing on the semantic polysemy of “sign”; thus, through this classification, we focused on the semantic polysemy of architectural signs.
The center of Fukui city, where motorization is highly developed, was chosen as the case study. Sketch map experiments were conducted at the University of Fukui, following the experimental methodology of past research. A geographic information system (GIS) database of architectural signs was created to calculate Jaccard indices of architectural sign pairs drawn by at least four participants, and two co-occurrence networks (drivers and non-drivers) were structured based on these indices. According to the structured networks, drivers were sufficiently classified; however, non-drivers needed to be broken down further into two groups. Consequently, we created three groups: drivers, non-drivers C1, and non-drivers C2.
Focusing on roads along which architectural signs exist and the functions of these signs, co-occurrency of architectural signs in the three groups was analyzed, based on the above-mentioned “sign–object” classification: “icon,” “index,” and “symbol.” Through analysis, we found that each group had each type of co-occurrence, despite the similar dispositions of drawn elements; however, we still had a possibility to connect the cognitive maps of the three groups, focusing on their co-occurency of architectural signs. “Megastore” and “transportation facilities” represented the center of Fukui as main “icons,” regardless of groups. Roads represented the center of Fukui as the main “index.” Each group had a different “index” road, but these roads were all near JR Fukui station, so architectural signs along these roads could serve as signs that mediate drivers’ and non-drivers’ cognitive maps around JR Fukui station. Especially, “AOSSA” and “Fukui Station Echizen Line” could be the mediating signs. “Restaurants” as “symbols” had high betweenness centrality and degree centrality in the co-occurrency networks of two or three groups; therefore, demonstrating that restaurants could serve as hubs in the networks mediating the drivers’ and non-drivers’ cognitive maps.
The analysis method and results presented here indicated the possibility of an impact of architectural design on the cognitive maps of a targeted area, which in turn indicated a path toward interaction design among architectural signs as one of the interactions in the communication between humans and architectural/urban spaces in the human–environment system. Thus, this study contributes toward enhancing the human–environment system design.
In recent years, the number of packages to be delivered has been rapidly increasing according to the pandemic usage of online shopping, while hireling delivery persons is becoming rather difficult. Given this background, some delivery companies employed a Team Delivery System (TDS), in which a Sales Driver (SD) and a Field Cast (FC) cooperate with each other to deliver packages efficiently. SD drives a truck to carry all packages and handover some packages to FC at parking spots. SD and FC deliver packages separately until the time to meet at the next parking spot. In this research, we proposed a method to find the best locations of parking spots and the best travel route for delivery so that the time to finish delivery of all the packages is minimized.
First, we formulated a Delivery Traveling Problem (DTP) as a mathematical model, which can be solved by minimizing an evaluation index including the total delivery time. This problem is regarded as a variation of multiple Traveling Salesman Problem, which is a one of NP-hard problem. In order to solve this problem efficiently within finite time, we proposed two new methods by combining the well-known methods that have been used for multiple Traveling Salesman Problems.
Next, we conducted the field surveys on the actual delivery service activities by Yamato Transport Co., Ltd, which is the largest delivery service company. Based on the surveys, we estimated basic statistics, such as the number of packages to deliver, the service time at delivery destinations, and the movement speed of delivery persons, and constructed a simulation model to describe the movement of SD and FC.
Next, we validated the effectiveness and usefulness of our proposed method by comparing with the existing methods of heuristics through the numerical simulation on the assumed virtual area. More specifically, employing the basic statistics obtained by surveys to the parameters of simulation, we compared each methods and examined the most efficient method. As the result, we showed the best method is the following procedure. (1) cluster delivery destinations into some zones using the fuzzy c-means method, (2) determine the locations of optimal parking spots for package handover using the genetic algorithm, (3) cluster the delivery destinations for each delivery person using the perspective ratio.
Next, we executed the delivery simulation in the survey areas and analyzed the movement of delivery persons. Comparing the actual-delivery route and the optimal-delivery route calculated by the proposed method, the latter's total delivery time was shorter. Hence, it was shown that more efficient delivery can be achieved by optimizing the locations of parking spots and travel routes.
Finally, we evaluated the performance of delivery person combinations by calculating the social cost for delivery activities. The social cost is an economical evaluation index obtained by accumulating the labor costs and the environmental costs in addition to the travel distance and the total delivery time. It was shown that the social cost varied depending on the areas, and the evaluation of the actual delivery person combination was excellent. In other words, it was found that the optimal delivery was practiced with comprehensive consideration of time, economy and safety, based on the long experiences in the actual delivery operations.
The purpose of this research was to make clear the physiological and psychological influence of earthquake motion on posture. 51 elderly male subjects were used by an experiment using vibration table.
The main results are summarized as follows.
1) A difference in the physiological and psychological influence of the seismic ground motion was seen between the chair seat and the face up position.
2) The difference in the physiological and psychological response to a seismic ground motion experience was seen clearly in face up position.
3) The face up position showed high systolic blood pressure compared with a chair seat.
4) The face up position feels seismic ground motion more intensely than a chair seat.
5) The systolic blood pressure in the face up position becomes high after an experience compared with before the seismic ground motion experience.
6) The pulse rate in the face up position becomes high after a ground shock experience compared with before the experience.
7) In the face up position, confidence of fire extinguishing falls after a ground shock experience compared with before the experience.
8) On the other hand, a difference in the physiological and psychological response wasn't seen clearly in the chair seat posture.
9) The following became clear through multi regression analysis: Sense of seismic ground motion strength was not influenced by age. Sense of seismic ground motion strength can be explained by posture and sense of seismic magnitude.
Architectural space is, in general, designed beyond the value of merely empty volumes, for it is to receive activities and comprising elements within and without. The notion of beyondness is hard to grasp in building constructions; text descriptions by architects entail their design intensions in detail in remove of construction feasibility. This research will examine coincidental values that are beyond structural integrity in the form of building descriptions in which construction feasibility is transcended by design intentions.
The flow of this research is as follows:
1. Subject of this research is 1,701 samples from the text descriptions where architects refer to properties beyond structural integrity in architectural magazine, Shin-Kenchiku during 1950-2017.
2. Extract the sentences that contain 3 kinds of key-elements: Structural Element, Operation, Gained Property. Structural Element is the word described as building components that resist weight and external forces. Operation is the word described as the act to structural element by the designer. Gained Property is the word described as an action caused by operation.
3. The relationships between Structural Element & Operation and Operation & Gained Property are analyzed in correspondence.
4. Based on the tendencies of correspondence analyses, frameworks of semantic contents are derived. By using them to make a matrix to identify aspects of coincidental values with building system and categorize them into types to provide insights and draw conclusions.
Through the investigation of the matrix between Structural Element, Operation, and Gained Property, 27 different types of coincidental values with building system were identified. As a ingenuity to create added values with building system by designers, six main points are found; 1. multifaceted pursuit of structural integrity by designers, 2. satisfaction of user requests by structural element, 3. consideration of third party circumstances, 4. acquisition of material property by independent existence of structural element, 5. acquisition of synergistic property by existence of structural element as a contact point for existing environment, 6. occurrence of a phenomenon where there is no structural elements being considered.
As a effect of coincidental values with building system, four main points are found; 1. elimination of surplus by avoidance of complexity, 2. omission of architectural component by structural element taking a role of functions, 3. adaptation to the surrounding events of the architecture, 4. expression of contradiction by structural element with mechanical limitations.
Based on the above, the designers consider events such as construction, industry, existing environment, and own ideas as the basis of design, and adjust the symbiotic form with the outside of the design and nonstructural components target by three methods; independent existence, dependent existence, non-existence of structural element. In addition, the designers lead contradictory properties and impressions to the architecture by not only to pursue structural integrity from various perspectives, but also to consciously deny structural integrity. It is, thus, clarified that notional affirmation and denial of consistency were created as coincidental values with building system by designers' physical adjustment of symbiotic relationship.
When creating sustainable architecture according to the climate and region, it is important to account for and design various falling water patterns. However, no study has quantitatively examined people’s impressions of various falling rainwater patterns when viewed from inside and outside of eaves. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the texture and impressions of people experiencing water falling from the front of eaves as they looked out at the external space.
In this study, experiments were conducted by using a rainfall simulation system, and a four-factor experimental design was implemented, after the form of falling water was observed in the field survey. Four levels of rainfall were determined; that is, 4.9 mm/h (normal rain), 16.0 mm/h (slightly heavy rain), 22.9 mm/h (strong rain), and 41.1 mm/h (heavy rain). In addition, two levels were set for the surrounding environmental background (achromatic and chromatic), two values of the eaves heights were set (2.0 m and 2.5 m), and two levels of roof slope (1 and 4) were employed. A total of 32 spaces with these combinations were then used as stimuli in the experiments, and the total experimental time was approximately 2 h. The experimental period was from November 27 to December 17, 2018, and the subjects comprised 30 students (21 males, 9 females) in their 20s from the Ibaraki University.
The main findings obtained from the four-way analysis of variance are listed below.
1) People’s impressions for the texture pf falling rainwater when viewed a space under an eave were constructed by the sense of aesthetic, brightness and calmness.
2) The various appearances of raindrops falling in a small amount of grain against a chromatic background had a positive impact on the sense of aesthetic, brightness, intimacy, and calmness. The position where the dripping occurred and the water path (Position) were fixed regularly (R), and the water fell intermittently (In); moreover, the shape of the dripping rain (Shape) was granular (G), and the behavior of dripping (Behavior) was vertical (V).
3) The recognizability of the raindrop falling close to the viewing field had a positive effect on the sense of intimacy and calmness.
4) The slow fall of raindrops due to the loose roof slope had a positive effect on the sense of brightness and intimacy.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between “architectural conditions” and “design decisions” of retrofit architecture, using statistical analyses: cluster analysis and decision tree analysis.
The subjects of this study were 93 cases of retrofitted modern architecture, which were printed in the magazine, Shinkenchiku, from 1974 to 2017. First of all, we set 8 items as “architectural conditions” such as building area and cultural properties, and also set 20 items as design decisions. In our previous paper, we set "design decisions" as a quantified data set of each retrofit architecture based on the similarity of the old and the new. In this paper, we newly added "the distance between the old and the new" into these data sets. Then, we prepared a matrix whose rows represented the 93 subjects and whose columns include both the architectural conditions and the design decisions.
First, the data were analyzed in the Ward’s clustering method, defining the dissimilarity as the squared Euclidean distance. From this analysis, we obtained 5 characteristic types of the design decisions: Similarity type(S), Separation and contrast type (Cs), Butt joint and contract type (Cb), Shape similarity type (Ss) and Neutrality type (N). Then we examined the structural relationship between these 5 characteristic types and the architectural conditions using the decision tree analysis, in which response variables are the 5 characteristic types and the explanatory variables are architectural conditions.
With these two analyses, we concluded that architectural conditions of “extension on top and side”, “type of original structure” and “change on building uses” would be the multiple factors of making each design decision.
In Akihabara, where various specialty stores accumulate, people gather searching for limited and rare products and exchange them to share their hobbies and interests outside the store, forming a kind of public sphere.
This paper clarifies the mechanism of forming "the place for exchanges of goods".
To grasp this mechanism that are common in the outdoor space of Akihabara is also important in considering the value of downtown, which used to be discussed with words "bustle" and was not considered its social meaning.
1) Geographical characteristics of group staying behavior on the street
By patrolling Akihabara district, the distribution of places for exchanges of goods on the street was clarified from the wide-area viewpoint. Through this survey 12 locations were extracted where "appreciation and exchange" activities were concentrated, and from these locations it became clear that place for exchanges of goods tend to be formed in the near ground where manga, anime, and game content is sold.
2) Behavior and spatial transformation of places for exchanges of goods
From the fixed-point observation investigation, the change of the range in which space for exchanges of goods forms and the change of the behavior were analyzed. As a result, special characters of places where exchanges of goods are likely to happen were grasped from a microscopic viewpoint. It has become clear that place for exchanges of goods occurs avoiding the flow of people. It was also confirmed that the larger the number of members, the more they stayed in the environment surrounded by street objects.
3) Behavioral psychology of people who form places for exchanges of goods
Hearing investigation clarified what kind of behavioral psychology were seen behind forming the places for exchanges of goods, and what kind of actions were done for making their own place on the street. As a result, two types of actions were identified: "exchange of goods" and "exchange of information". It was confirmed that places for exchanges of goods occurs not only in search of a consensus of interests, but also in search of mutual empathy through the exchange of information in which people can deepen their knowledge of hobbies and preferences. It also became clear that they formed or joined in places for exchanges of goods with 9 kinds of behavioral psychology.
This study targets Takamatsu Marugamemachi shopping street (Takamatsu-shi, Kagawa) where rates it as a best practice, and where commercial activities are integrally operated both redeveloped and undeveloped districts. Then, this study is aimed to consider economic system which supports its society and space from behind as Area’s Context (Organizational Context), to clarify its mechanism, and to gain knowledge of a whole concept of redevelopment at regional cities for the future.
There are several social organizations such as business enterprises by purpose and the promotion association of the shopping street at this area. It becomes obvious that there is a common pattern with respect to each district when it is examined their structure of elements such as contractual relationship, capital subscription, funds flow, and decision making procedure. It is to implement advanced tenant leasing method by ‘management organization’ who is entrusted facility management by ‘organization of block building’ owning redeveloped facilities. The results showed that rent is distributed to land owners due to subordinated dividend. Besides, the land owners take risk and responsibility for management through participating in decision making of Governing Association. This philosophy is shared with all districts as the common pattern.
Under the certain philosophy, the pattern has characteristics which result in alternation of methods of city planning and redevelopment schemes with area attributes and economic situation. Furthermore, with including in land owners whose properties have been undeveloped, all land owners are integrated into large funds flow in the entire area and mechanism of decision making. Consequently, it is identified that this study field, Takamatsu Marugamecho has characteristics of Organizational Context as defined by this study. Hereafter, it is an issue of horizontal cooperation between governing associations beyond districts.
In the past earthquake disasters, a large number of people trapped in collapsed buildings occurred, and prompt rescue operations were required to increase the survival rate. The occurrence of large-scale earthquakes in the future is a concern in the metropolitan area. For example, in the damage assumption by the Southern Tokyo In-land Earthquake, it is said that the maximum number of people expected to be trapped in collapsed buildings due to structural damage from shaking is about 72,000 in the total affected areas. Therefore, disaster mitigation measures according to the local situation are urgently needed. However, in many local governments, earthquake damage assumptions are limited to calculating the number of people who are trapped in collapsed buildings. In addition, qualitative discussions are central to status of rescue activities after an earthquake.
In this study, we evaluated the disaster mitigation effects of rescue activities that consider regional characteristics such as building and road conditions, locations of fire stations, and the number of firefighters in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture. In evaluation, we used indicators such as the time required for rescue operations and number of people rescued over time.
First, we proposed a method for evaluating the disaster mitigation effects of rescue activities based on regional characteristics. In this study, it was assumed that firefighters carried out rescue activities for those who are trapped in wooden or non-wooden collapsed buildings by shaking when the earthquake occurred at 5 am. The proposed evaluation method aims to be easily applicable to other local governments by utilizing the public data such as government statistics.
Next, we clarified how much time it takes to rescue people who are trapped in collapsed buildings using the proposed evaluation method. As a result, the difference in rescue completion time in each region was a maximum of 3.8 hours in the case of intensity of lower 6 on the Japanese scale (instrumental seismic intensity: 5.6), a maximum of 18.9 hours in the case of intensity of lower 6 (instrumental seismic intensity: 5.8), and a maximum of 63.8 hours in the case of intensity of upper 6 (instrumental seismic intensity: 6.0). Based on the above results, it became clear that as the seismic intensity increases, the difference in time required for rescue operations between regions tends to increase. In addition, when a large scale disaster, it was suggested that rescue teams are easily affected by road blockages when moving around the activity site in areas where there are many old earthquake-resistant wooden buildings and widely distributed.
The method proposed in this study is effective when comprehensively considering earthquake disaster countermeasures because it can evaluate the disaster reduction effects of structural measures such as repair of old buildings and non structural measure such as the arrangement of firefighters. Furthermore, the evaluation method can be expected to encourage local residents to understand earthquake disaster countermeasures such as the removal and repair of old buildings by local residents recognizing the current situation of regional characteristics in consideration of the rescue operation ability.
As it is predicted that there is a 70% possibility of an earthquake directly hitting Tokyo metropolitan within the next 30 years, it is an urgent issue to ensure the traffic function of emergency transportation roads (hereafter called "ETR"), which is an important infrastructure that supports emergency activities at the time of a large earthquake (e.g., wide-area evacuation, firefighting activities, ambulance services, etc.). In previous paper, we discussed about the transportation function of ETR after a large earthquake by evaluating the accessibility of ETR and the effects of quake-resistant-conversion of roadside buildings. In this paper, we propose the method for extracting vulnerable accessibility roadside areas, which have high possibility to hinder emergency activities after a large earthquake.
First, to extract the vulnerable roadside areas with poor accessibility, we propose novel indices, Link Isolation ratio (hereafter called "LI ratio") and Network Isolation ratio (hereafter called "NI ratio"). Next, we improve a simulation model, which we had previously constructed. This simulation model is consist of the following two sub-models. The one is the road blockage model that describes the collapse of each roadside building based on the construction year and the structure of each building, and describes the road blockage based on the collapse situation of roadside buildings. The other one is the emergency-vehicle-movement model that describes movement of emergency vehicles to activity bases. Then, performing the simulations, we evaluate the accessibility to disaster base hospitals (total 80 bases) using ETR in Tokyo metropolitan. We examine the simulation results with accessibility indices, LI ratio and NI ratio, which are calculated on the assumption that the medical relief activities are conducted at disaster base hospitals in the corresponding secondary healthcare service area.
LI ratio(pmin), the possibility of an emergency vehicle cannot access to any disaster base hospital, indicates higher value than road blockage ratio at 50.0% of road links, and there is a difference of 20.0 points or more between these indices at 15.5% of road links. This is because the isolation status of each road link is result of not only its own blockage status but also surrounding situations. From the spatial distribution of the LI ratio(pmin), we can grasp vulnerable roadside areas with poor accessibility to disaster base hospitals. For instance, it is difﬁcult to secure a detour route when emergency vehicle encounters road blockages in an area with sparse road network. In such areas, isolated links tend to occur over a wide range.
NI ratios(pmin) exceeds 50.0% at 7 disaster base hospitals (8.8% of the total). In the secondary healthcare service areas with those hospitals, there is a high possibility that the medical relief function is biased toward hospitals with high accessibility. Therefore, it is also important to consider the countermeasures to improve the accessibility to hospitals with poor accessibility. Moreover, NI ratios(pmin) indicate high value in secondary healthcare service areas such as Nishi-tama and Kita-tama Hokubu. At the time of a large earthquake, there is a possibility that some roadside areas become unreachable to any hospital and patients in those areas may not be able to receive medical relief activities. To improve NI ratios(pmin) of those areas, there is an urgent need to consider the countermeasures such as quake-resistant-conversion of buildings around disaster base hospitals or road links with high LI ratios.
The Home Information Packs are an optional system that is based on the accumulated building information of a house from the time of new construction, which is provided by the Housing Information Agencies. By utilizing the accumulated historical data of all the services, repairs, renovations, and sales transactions concerning a property, Home Information Packs fulfill the role of property owners in accordance with maintenance plans.
To start and implement this system containing the information we accumulated, we performed the following:
1. Issued separate RFID tags to distinguish accumulated data from other information.
2. Maintained a structure of universal folders listing where this data was stored.
3. Maintained the ledger of house history information so that we could determine the content therein.
4. Provided a thesaurus to help clarify the titles within the ledger.
5. Adopted mutual guidelines to manage and operate the housing information agencies.
6. Established the Housing Information Agencies Association to enable us to manage the entire operation.
The house history contains two types of information: architectural blueprints that show the design of the building and documents detailing the home’s service history. From the ledger, we are also able to determine by whom and when the information was entered. However, no further refinements have been made at this point.
The first objective of this study is to analyze the house history information which is created in accordance with our legal system. To do so, we subdivided all the information based on the general characteristics of each service received.
Our second objective is to clarify the types of information created and to examine data on the house history that may be distributed in the future.
This is the first report of this study on the specific details and distribution of the Home Information Packs. It is significant for two reasons. First, because the house history information is based on legislative requirements, its relationship with the law can be described as two sides of the same coin. Therefore, accessing the house history information is assumed to be the same as accessing the legal system. We list every law and regulation that applies during the life of a house. The terms in the article are regarded as specific information on the house history and these terms are defined in the terminology dictionary. With these definitions, we determine what is correct and incorrect to analyze the operability from both sellers and perspective buyers when the information is released.
By this study, I consider a reading and a meaning of ‘Futama’. ‘Futama’ is written on a literary work of the Heian era. ‘Futama’ is written by a hiragana letter. It is not ‘Niken’. ‘Futama’ is right.
The ‘Ma’ means room. This precedent study depends on a document of the Muromachi era. There was not an until now overall discussion.
‘Ochikubo Monogatari’ has the text ‘Futamaaruheya’. This text shows that ‘Futama’ was room. A heroine was isolated by ‘Futama’. ’Futama’ had a key. It was a lumber room. ‘Ochikubo Monogatari’ is precious. Because it writes ‘Futama’ is room. ‘Yamato Monogatari’ and ‘Makuranososhi’ have a word of ‘Futama’. ‘Futama’ is space. It is more right as interpretation of the stories. ‘The Tale of Genji’ has ‘Nakanoma’. In this case a number is not shown. ’Ma’ is room. ’Ma’ is not span. ‘Futama’ is space of two intercolumns.
There is how to read ‘Ma’ and ‘Ken’. But ‘Ken’ is not room. All the room is ‘Ma’. By this consideration, it became clear that a start of ‘Ma’ was the Heian era. It was obvious that ‘Futama’ was space.
The Rinzō is a wooden, revolvable bookshelf used for storing scriptures in Buddhist temples. It was introduced into Japan in the middle 13th century. Although used as a bookshelf, the Rinzō also imitates the shape of the real carpentry architecture. Therefore, it serves not only as a kind of wooden furniture, but also an architectural model that is full of carpentry architectural elements. Records of the Rinzō can be found in the Japanese architectural technic books in the Japanese early modern period. This paper takes the architectural technic books as the research materials to discuss all kinds of design methods of the Rinzō. A total of 15 books were collected, containing records of the Rinzō from the open access Japanese architectural technic books.
The paper analyzed 7 kinds of designing items of the Rinzō by interpreting texts in the architectural technic books. The body diameters of the Rinzō are determined by the fixed sizes. The spans between outer ring and inner ring are defined based on the body diameter. The dimensions of height are defined by the body diameter, the dimension of sutra case or defined in fixed sizes. The pillar’s diameters are defined in proportional coefficients based on the span of body’s bay. The depths of eave are defined in 4 ways, the first is defined based on the span of bay, the second is defined based on the items of sutra hall, the third is defined based on the body diameter, the fourth is defined by the rafter module. The dimensions of various detailed elements of the Rinzō are mostly defined in proportional coefficients based on the pillar diameter. Besides, according to the relationship between the Rinzō and the Kyōzō (Sutra hall), it shows that in early Edo period, there are no specific dimensional relation between the Rinzō and the Kyōzō, while in the books after early Edo period, dimensions of the Rinzō influence the plans of the Kyōzō.
Dimensional plans of the technic books are discussed based on the drawings of dimensional systems. It revealed that almost all the technic books share the same characteristics in the dimensional planning. The body diameter serves as the start point of dimensional systems in all kind of technic books, and the pillar diameter serves as the dimensional module to the whole dimensional plan, which suggests that the design technique of the Rinzō can be recognized as a diversion to the Kiwari technique for carpentry architectures.
This study examined rural housing improvement engagements conducted at “middle-class farmer’s schools.” The establishment of these schools was promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry as a part of a project promoting the economic regeneration of rural villages. In particular, this study highlights the planning and use of housings that were developed in these farmer’s schools and are frequently referred to as “model farmer’s houses.”
“Model farmer’s houses” were designed as models of housing improvement for standard farmers. Their previous existence has been validated at 4 of the 49 middle-class farmer’s schools existed until 1942, namely Yamagata Prefectural Folk High School, Iwate Prefectural Rokuhara Young Adults’ Dōjō, Toyama Prefectural Farmers’ Dōjō, and Akita Prefectural Farmer’s School. Moreover, 2 model farmhouses were developed at the school in the Yamagata prefecture, which were designed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the prefecture. The schools in the Iwate and Toyama prefectures constructed 4–5 projects tailored to different forms of agricultural business management, presenting models of housing compatible with different livelihoods and customs. The model farmer’s houses were used as boarding houses for the school students, and in the Yamagata prefecture, were open to the public for disseminating and promoting models of rural housing improvement. In the Iwate prefecture, the construction of model farmer’s houses was also aimed at conducting research on improving “settler’s houses” of the prefecture-run Iwasaki Reclamation Project near the school.
In terms of engagements to improve rural housing, the construction and use of model farmer’s houses predated the “agricultural workers’ housing” of the Obonai Village Settlement in the Akita prefecture (1935) and experimental housing for farmers in snowy regions by the National Research Institute for Rural Economy in Fallen Snow Region (1938) designed by Wajirō Kon. Moreover, the dissemination and promotion activities were based on actual experiences of the leader strata, which were responsible for regenerating rural economies. This approach can be considered a method unique to rural communities and different from the housing improvements in urban areas, which used exhibitions and magazines instead of people as their mediums.
Since the middle of the Meiji era in Japan, an architectural company has been organized, and the author has shown the history of the establishment and dissolution of Nihon Doboku Kaisya, Teikoku Kogyo Kaisya, Meiji Kogyo Kaisya. In addition to these companies, Dai-Nippon Kenchiku Kaisya has been established as a construction company during this period. Regarding the company, Iwashita said it was approved on August 8, 1907 with a capital of 1 million yen. However, there is a problem with the date of approval of the company. The purpose of this article is to clarify the history from the establishment and dissolution of Dai-Nippon Kenchiku Kaisya and the background of CYOGO Taisuke who was involved in the establishment, and following points become clear.
CYOGO was born on January 19, 1849, and was the retainer of the Aizu Domain. He went to Hakodate and met Nikolai. In early 1872 he went to Yokohama and Tokyo as a servant of Nikolai. Since then, he studied architecture in Lescasse and Smedley, and in the Russian Orthodox Church, was in charge of buying and selling land and building. He established the CYOGO-gumi in January 1886 in Imairi-cho, Shiba-ku. After this, the approval date of the Dai-Nippon Kenchiku Kaisya, which he established, was previously set to August 8, 1888, but August 7 is correct. The company was closed by around 1897, and since then it has been operating under the name of CYOGO-gumi, and has stopped working around 1906. He even started mining, but failed, and also worked on clogs manufacturing. He became a representative employee of NINJYU SEIMEI after 1905, but was expelled from the company in August 1910 and died on July 15, 1911.
Laon Cathedral is distinguished by its unchanged elevation despite its relatively long period of construction (c. 1155-c. 1230). The triforium retained its three-arcaded composition. It is evident that the organization of the work site changed several times during the construction. However, existing analysis have not paid attention to this problem. This paper aims to answer this question through a study of the triforium.
The triforium, passageway inside the thickness of a Gothic wall, has been rarely studied. This is regrettable because the triforium is rich in information. Its complicated composition and the diversity of its elements sometimes reflect the ruptures of construction or the changes in organization of the work site.
I investigated the triforium of Laon Cathedral in the following procedure:
1. Make clear the ruptures in the construction on the basis of the masonry and the capital sculptures.
2. Examine the techniques of construction (the masonry, the mason’s marks and the putlog holes (trou de boulin)).
3. Measure the heights of the shafts and the plinths of all the colonnettes. Analyze their differences between each construction phases and see their regularity/irregularity.
The study suggests that the organization of the work site seem to have changed after the first and the third phases: The first phase is characterized by its naturalistic style of the capital sculptures and the usage of the mason’s marks; The originality of the second and third phases are the presence of the putlog holes (which testifies the usage of cantilevered scaffolding) and the construction of the shaft and the capital in the same block; These techniques can not be seen in the forth phase.
Despite its unchanged design throughout the whole construction campaigns, there were several changes in organization of the work site. Studying the triforium can contribute to the monographic research on Gothic monuments.
The château de Versailles which had been a hunting lodge of Louis XIII became a huge Palace when the château-neuf was built from 1668 to 1670. Regarding the chronology of this château-neuf called envelopment, various theories have been fought since the 1940s, but the reason why many interpretations could exist is that “Palais de Versailles: Raisons générales”, one of the three documents related to this problem by Jean-Baptiste Colbert doesn’t bear the date on which it was written.
The author previously evaluated former studies on the chronology of château-neuf and emphasized the differences in the interpretation of these three documents. As a result of that, it is revealed that the interpretation of "Raisons générales" is the most important. Therefore, as a next step, it is necessary to work "Raisons générales" in the construction history of château-neuf without contradiction. In this paper, I argue that "Raisons générales" should explain the adoptation of the finally realized plan by abandoning the chief architect's competition plan which is thought to have been adopted since the end of June 1669. In other words, I believe that "Raisons générales" was written last in the above three documents. Although this order has already been presented in previous studies, the reason for doing so is not indicated, so the presentation of that reason is the original purpose of this paper.
As preparatory work, I already assessed the position of "Raisons générales" in former studies in my previous report, indicated difficulties for the interpretation of "Raisons générales" and carried out the work which highlights the positioning and inconsistency point in the interpretation of "Raisons générales" in these studies. In this paper, at first, after showing the Japanese translation by the author of the "Raisons générales", the points of the above work and issues are summarized and the author's answer to these points are presented. Based on the key derived from them, i.e. the dimensional data in "Raisons générales", the author adequately places "Raisons générales" in the construction history of the château-neuf of Versailles. The author indicates that the dimensions shown in the description that "L’élévation du dedans de la cour sera de 60 pieds de hauteur, et la cour n’aura que 28 toises de large sur 34 toises de longueur" at the beginning of the second part of "Raisons générales" is the key to this argumentation. The author proves the above hypothesis by comparing these dimentional data with the dimensions of the rooms of the appartement du roi shown in another document written by Cobert, "Mémoire de ce que le Roi desire dans son Bâtiment de Versailles". At that time, it also shows the reason why the dimensional data indicated in this "Mémoire" should be used rather than the measured value of the château-neuf of Versailles.
This paper explores architectures by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. who contributed the modernization of city and architectures in Catalonia, Spain in order to analyse especially residential functioned architectures and discover how the architectural design concept by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. was integrated the design essence of traditional local Spanish houses into their architectural design.
Firstly by examining “A.C.”, journals published by G.A.T.C.P.A.C., it was confirmed that there are 43 architectural design projects proposed by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. and among them the residential functioned projects were counted as 23, which is the largest numbers among all the projects. From the site location point of view, all the projects locate in Catalonia area and the Balearic Islands near Catalonia. Furthermore it was also identified that more than half of the projects are located in Barcelona.
Secondly 2 residential projects are carefully chosen in terms of space analysis, especially looking into semi outdoor space and openings, which are often found in architectures by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. Also the different site aspects are taken into consideration;
One is “Apartment House on Muntaner Street” that was constructed at New City area in Barcelona and the other is “Casa Bloc” that was constructed at the surrounding area of New City on the contrary. “Apartment House on Muntaner Street” was one of the earlier projects by G.A.T.C.P.A.C. and “Casa Bloc” is a large apartment house project for workers that G.A.T.C.P.A.C. had especially given the importance through their projects as one of the social problems.
By analysing those 2 projects as well as referring to traditional local Spanish houses, often appeared on A.C., 2 design features below are clarified as a result;
1, Rational architectural feature for the allocation of openings and room composition, which are fundamentally equipped in traditional local houses at the Mediterranean Sea area, based on the climate condition. This feature would be naturally equipped since lighting and shading need to be considered simultaneously under the strong Mediterranean sunshine in Spain.
2, Lyrical architectural feature for the sequential planning, such as surrounding area - semi outdoor space (court yard, front garden and terrace) – living space, which naturally matches with local people’s life style. This is because it was essential for Catalan people, who lived in the limited inner space, to have shared public space in order to take mental comfort (“pleasure” and “rest”).
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the descriptions of Hiroshi Ohe’s “Uchi”. In this research, we focused on the descriptions about Ohe's “Uchi” and structured the meanings through analysis and interpretation of their descriptions.
2. The meaning of “Uchi” in examples
At first, “Uchi” has the meanings which is “uchi(written in Chinese characters )”, and it is divided into “Physical meanings” and “Human relations meanings”. The “uchi” often used to refer to the physical interior of a house or space. The phenomena that can be noticed by the Body (Body=Mind) walking along the route have the meaning of “Uchi” which is able to dwell in trust. “To be able to dwell in trust” is to feel the sense of distance in the spatial behaviors and pathways of the entrance, and to gain a sense of security isolated from the outside.The phenomena until notice “Uchi” were due to psychological changes caused by the Japanese habitual Body(Body=Mind).
3. Positioning of “Uchi”
“Uchi” is a matter which established by the construction principle of “Ai”, which places the top priority on the change of people's process and mind. What is important in the composition of “Uchi” is the “Mind”, and it is as a matter that should be prioritized over visible elements (Form・Pattern). The location of the “Ai” configuration is the “Uchi” which is able to dwell in trust. That is the essence of the dwelling that Ohe should aim for.
4. Hiroshi Ohe's structure of “Uchi”
There were three meanings of “Uchi”, “i. Physical ‘uchi’”, “ii. ‘Uchi’ which is able to dwell in trust”, and “iii. Designation of ‘Uchi’”. “i. Physical ‘uchi’” was also used for the spatial of architecture and had a physical meaning. In order to establish “Uchi”, the way of distance was important. The distance necessary for the establishment of “ii. ‘Uchi’ which is able to dwell in trust” is based on a body that has a custom as a Japanese. The phenomenon occurred by experiencing mind changes caused by actions (Walking, Take off footware) in complex space configurations (Way/Entrances).
Because of the distance, “Uchi” becomes “Uchi” which is able to dwell in trust. The space composition for distance which required for the establishing process of “Uchi” which is able to dwell in trust is composed by the “Ai” method. Physical “uchi” is established by physical distance, and designation of “Uchi” is established by distance from companion consciousness. These structures of “Uchi” is shown from the fact that it was pulled out. The structure of “Uchi”, which is related to Soto and Separation, is expressed as a characteristic of Japanese housing called “in trust” that includes all Body-Mind (physical and mental) aspects.
The subject of this paper is to clarify “Uchi” in the description of Ohe Hiroshi, and by organizing, analyzing and interpreting the target documents, the meaning of discourse of “Uchi” in the description by Hiroshi Ohe and which structure is clarified whether it is caught with such a spread. In this paper, we positioned “Uchi” which is able to dwell in trust in Ohe's architectural philosophy as the nature of Japanese dwelling.
This study aims to clarify the background of developing plans, examine specific planning maps, look into the implementation process, and discuss the results of a project to build a new industrial city during World War II using the Hikari-Murozumi area as a case.
The prototype of Japanese urban planning was reportedly established in World War II. It was developed in the pursuit of controlling big cities and the decentralization of industry as two central pillars, and building a new industrial city as a major policy to promote the decentralization of industry. The Hikari-Murozumi area discussed in this paper is used as a model because it adopted advanced systems of architectural regulation first introduced in World War II, such as exclusive-use zoning and open-space areas.
A project to build a new industrial city was planned in the Hikari-Murozumi area where a naval shipyard was located, and wide streets were constructed to directly connect both towns. Furthermore, a wide residential area was planned through state-aided land adjustment. The urban planning of the Hikari-Murozumi area was governed by the planning standard of the Maintenance and Repair Policy, which became the prototype for the guidelines of the Home Ministry. Above all, the area complied with the idea of fire protection division, which divides the urban district by special roads and green belts. The special roads designed for the fire protection division were constructed with government support ahead of the construction of the fire protection division. This indicates that the urban planning of the Hikari-Murozumi area was state-of-the-art and applied neighborhood theory.
At the same time, a higher greenery area ratio was decided as part of plans to construct a new industrial city compared to standard land readjustment. Through several revisions, the greenery area ratio was eventually set above the five percent standard ratio for new industrial city construction plans. In the course of the revisions, innovative methods, such as securing space by means of transferring cemeteries, was envisioned.
In addition, an exclusive district for residential use and the open area system was designated to secure a high-standard living environment. The construction of open areas characteristically used a system that introduced the idea of the floor-space ratio to create open space in each city lot.
As mentioned above, the idea of constructing a new industrial city was high-level urban planning. However, the project fell through because of the end of World War II, and the setback substantially curtailed urban planning in the postwar period. Consequently, the project in Hikari was carried out in a considerably reduced scale, and the one in Murozumi was carried out under a state-aided land adjustment project using former military land and was finally completed in 1960.