Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ)
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
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  • Huijuan LI, Teruki YAMAGISHI, Naoyuki HIROTA, Lianru DUAN, Shuji FUNO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 1-9
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     In recent years, aging has become a serious social problem in China. It is estimated that the aging rate will reach 25.0% in China and 27.3% in Shanxi province by 2030. Moreover, the number of a couple elderly living without children and living alone elderly who are called “empty nesters elderly” in China is increasing rapidly.

     The objective of this paper is to clarify and evaluate living environment, especially space formation of dwelling for elderly people in Xi’an and Shanxi, China based on field study. This paper concentrate on Beilin District of Xi’an(6 shequ). Firstly, we clarifies the space formation of shequs, distribution of public facilities in the vicinity of shequs, and public services by resident committee. Secondarily, we profiles of elderlies in general based on the interview (total 201 persons). Thirdly, we concentrate on the space formation of dwelling and clarifies the problems of dwelling accommodation for all elderlies regardless of the degree of independence.

     The major points this paper clarifies are as follows.

     1. Community facilities for the elderly are mostly installed in community committee’s office, but are not enough. Elderly people in sheque⑤ where is high aging rate, facilities is well-equipped, spends the longest time outdoor, feels the lowest loneliness and is highly satisfied with daily life. Areas lacking facilities for elderly need to be integrated.

     2. The population density of each community is quite different, and the distribution of facilities are not well- balanced. Recreational facilities are very few in general. It is necessary to integrate the area on the basis of information about the types and locations of facilities around the area.

     3.60% of the respondents are “empty nesters elderly” and 72.2% of the elderly do not participate in any recreational activities at all. The elderly have less time to stay outdoors and their activities are monotonous. 78.1% of the elderly suffer from chronic diseases and the medical health is their most concern. It is very important to establish a system of linkages with the medical system.

     4. As for the planning of houses, all the dwelling have some problems. It is a basic problem that no care space and no shower etc. because the space area is so small. The problem of aging of hydroelectric heating and high bath etc. can also be pointed out. No elevator installed in the building etc.. Housing planning should consider the use of elderly that needs a fundamental change.

     5. With the degree of elderly's self-independent, the inconvenience or inadaptability of living space is increasing. For the elderly people of Independent degree, there are still obstacles to use space. The inconvenience for the elderly of Independent degree I obviously becomes obstacle for the elderly of Independent degree II and III. For the elderly of Independent degree III, it is necessary to set up the care system and prepare facilities as soon as possible.

     Above all, it is clear that there are still many problems in the living environment of the elderly in the urban center of the historic city of Xi'an. As for the suburbs and countryside area of Xi'an, other papers will be prepared.

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  • A study on the change of dwelling style in environmental transition to different dwelling culture
    Mayila AIZEZI, Maiko UMEMOTO, Saikaku TOYOKAWA, Hideki KOBAYASHI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 11-21
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This research mainly purpose on Uyghur’s who are traditionally regarded as having the same floor-seating style while they have different cultural backgrounds and considered seating style through elucidation of changes in Uyghur's way of living in Japan and the environment transition.

     This paper focused on the taking off outdoor footwear and defines the culture of taking off outdoor footwear at the entrance in Japan as " Dwelling culture of taking off outdoor footwear."

     The specific contents of the study are (1) To understand the seating style in Uyghur and Japan, (2) To understand the characteristics of change through comparison between the two country, (3) Based on the relationship between the taking off outdoor footwear and go to the floor and floor finish and seating style, we examine the characteristics of the seating style of them, considered about dwelling culture of taking off outdoor footwear.

     The total 15 Uyghur families were surveyed. They are living in Japan for their assistance in interviews. In order to capture the subject's living style in Japan and Uyghur, we surveyed the questions prepared in advance by visiting the subject's home and interviewing them. The interview contents are the family constitution, dwelling style and seating style of interviewee, they live in Japan, and they live in Uyghurs before came to Japan. The survey period is 4 months from May 2018 to August 2018.

     This study considers the way of seating style for Uyghur’s living in Japan with the same custom of “take off outdoor footwear and go to the floor” and floor-seating, through capturing the change of seating style with environmental transition.

     1. Even the Uyghur’s are also in the process of being chair-seating, and the tendency is strong in the place of eating, while the floor-seating is easily inherited unusual place of the hospitality, and can be pointed out as a common point with Japan.

     2. As Uyghur’s ethnic identity, it can be pointed out that floor-seating preference for a place of relaxation and the point of making it a high-floor, and it is considered to be an inheritance of traditional dwelling style. However, this point does not become apparent in Environmental transition to Japan, and it is conscious as a response action to the physical environmental, such as reduction of room size and number of rooms.

     3. With the Environmental transition, 1/3 choose a different seating style from Uyghur, and it can be said that all cases use chair-seat and floor-seat together shows the floor-seat and the chair-seat are easy to keep compatibility depending on environment and it can be considered that the taking off outdoor footwear and go to the floor is the upper concept of floor-seating style.

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  • -Case study on the “SWALLOW HOUSE” converted from farmer's barn-
    Mahito NAKAZONO, Shotaro KANZAKI, Sachiko MISIMA, Syouken KOH, Sachiko ...
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 23-32
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This paper aims to clarify the differences of usage pattern which the group size brings by taking notice of the free play style in which pupils spend a large portion of weekday time in the after-school care facility that converted a barn of farmhouse.

     Although this facility had been converted a barn of farmhouse, the floor for playing has 60.9 square meter and it is near the space of usual classroom of elementary school. Since the facility located in a rural area, use pupils number is about 10 to 30, and the floor space per pupil has nearly satisfied the conference proposal standard (3.96square meters) so this is a standard type facility that is almost equal to the proposal level from the viewpoint of pupil's necessary floor space in the mountainous areas. Furthermore, the ground for playing outside has been improved near the facility, and the exterior spaces, such as the south garden of main building and pond, are also used as a place for playing. Most pupils are playing in outdoor space for a long time on fine weather day, and the importance of securing the outdoor playground of sufficient is pointed out for the care of pupils in after school hours of weekday.

     From the viewpoint of architectural planning, this facility is converted into the two-room and three domain type that was utilized the space composition of existing barn, and it has been divided into multipurpose room and playroom. Since the difference of pupil's arrival time to the facility, the time zone that snack, study and indoor play develop in parallel exists, so by assigning study to multipurpose room and snack and indoor play to playroom, the facility can respond to about 20 pupils. The time zone of free play has few pupils who hold indoor play as several persons, because most pupils may hold playing outside in fine weather day. Study and static play are assigned to multipurpose room, and the dynamic play is assigned to playroom on rainy weather day, so the mutual interference is avoided.

     In cases of 25 pupils, multipurpose room and playroom are both used for snack and study space in the time zone of snack and study, so the playing of pupils and putting the playroom in order by staffs overlapped. In time of free play on rainy weather day, the scenes that adequate space for each pupil is in sufficient but the cases that group plays interfere with each other are few. In cases of 28 pupils, in time of free play on rainy weather day, the scenes that adequate space for each pupil is in sufficient and the cases that group plays interfere with each other are often seen because the many pupils frequently concentrated in the playroom, and the time of same play decreased.

     Therefore, also in the case of floor space of about 60-square meter, if it has space composition of two-room and three spheres, it will be judged that the correspondence to about 15 to 20 pupils is possible enough but in case of over 20 pupils, there are some problems for playing and facility management, so the maximum number of the facility may be 25 pupils.

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  • Takahiro TAKEUCHI, Kyohei YAMAGUCHI, Midori TAKAGI, Akikazu KATO
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 33-40
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This paper aims to reveal the usefulness of nursing travel distance simulation using Building Information Modeling (BIM). A nursing travel distance survey was conducted to grasp the actual conditions of the nursing behavior and to extract the elements that affect nursing travel distance. Following the analysis, the simulation was carried out using BIM to make predictions by changing the positions of the nursing base and changing the placements of patients. Firstly, the paper provides the development method and outline of nursing travel distance simulation using BIM. This simulation is a program that visually express the number of nurse’s movements on the nursing routes. Also, in this simulation a total nursing travel distance is calculated as an overall evaluation index.

     The nursing travel distance survey was conducted at two medical nursing units placed in a nursing base dispersedly placed type ward plan. The initial ward design concept was having three nursing units on one floor consisting one nursing administration unit. However, at the time of the survey two nursing units consisted on the floor where one unit, W_Ward, used a staff station (SS) as the main nursing base and the other, E_Ward, used a nursing corner (NC) as the main nursing base. Also, W_Ward used the conventional team nursing system, however, E_Ward has started a Partnership Nursing System (PNS) where a pair of nurses looked after a certain group of patients.

     Thus secondly, the paper clarifies the method of nursing behavior survey and analysis of influential factors of nursing travel distance. The average of nursing travel time in E_Ward, which used NC as the main nursing base, was significantly shorter than that in W_Ward, which used SS as the main nursing base. The nurses visited bed rooms where patients with higher degree of Nursing Necessity Index were placed. From these results, it was found that the nursing travel distances varied depending on the positions of the nursing base and the placements of patients with higher degree of Nursing Necessity Index.

     Finally, by changing the above positioning features, nursing travel distance simulations were carried out on BIM system.

     Obtained results are as shown below:

     1) By improving the use method of nursing base, it was possible to reduce 27% of nursing travel distance.

     2) As to the conditions of patient placements, two extreme conditions were considered. One was where all patients with higher Nursing Necessity Index were placed near to the nursing base resulting in shorter nursing travel distance. While the other was where all these patients were placed far from the nursing base resulting in longer nursing travel distance. From the simulation result, the difference in increase of nursing travel distance was about 30%. Therefore, it could be concluded that there exist a suitable patient placement influencing the nursing travel distance in the nursing base dispersedly placed type ward plan.

     As a result, by using BIM simulation, the simulation process and results can be visualized, so that the BIM user can easily try out various factors affecting the simulation and understand the causations. Because BIM is changing the architectural delivery process, the proposed simulation system may enhance the process by giving the BIM user an opportunity to carry out the building performance evaluation even during the planning, programming and design stages.

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  • Toward an impressive exhibition planning at museums
    Dukwoo KIM, Yurika YOKOYAMA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 41-47
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020


     In recent Japanese museums, spaces for corridors, shops, restaurants and the like are increasing. However, it has not been clarified whether being in these spaces and doing variety of activities afforded by the spaces right after appreciation actually affect the memories of appreciated exhibition or not. In studies of memory, it is said that resting or lightly exercising after learning have a long-lasting effect on memory of what you have learned. We wonder if such an effect of activities after appreciation is also realized in the appreciation situation in museums, and affect the memory of what we have seen, that is, longer lasting impression.

     This study examines whether the richness of memory of exhibition differs according to the post-appreciation environment that afford different activities, even though the exhibition is the same. In addition, this study further argues that there is physiological background for the effect of the post-appreciation activity.


     The experiments are conducted in the procedure : 1) Appreciation - 2) Activity - 3) Memory test. Three video clips were prepared for the appreciation procedures. As for the activities to be performed post-appreciation, three common behaviors in the museums were selected and carried out one for each session, i.e. A: Sitting calm, B: Walking, and C: Talking quietly. The above procedure is carried out three times in total and in randomized order of activities, i.e. three sessions, for each participant and we examined whether there is difference in richness of latent memory due to the Activity (A, B, C).

     Furthermore, we measured Skin Conductance Level (SCL) during the activities, and examined whether, there is the relationship between activity and physiological condition.


     As a result of the memory test, we found that the score for Activity-A (Sitting calm) and Activity-B (Walking) are significantly higher than Activity-C (Talking) (p<. 05). When we interpret rich latent memory as impressiveness, we may say this result proved that the impressiveness of the video contents is different due to the post-appreciation activity.

     As a result of SCL measuring, Activity-C (Talking) is accompanied by higher arousal than Activity-A (Sitting) and Activity-B (Walking). In other words, Activity-A (Sitting) and Activity-B (Walking) are more relaxing than Activity-C (Talking). Considering the results of the memory test, this result suggests that having a more relaxing environment after appreciation may help making memory last long.


     Considering that Talking (Activity-C) gained the lowest score, we discuss that, while sitting or walking situation may afford the unconscious recall after the appreciation of the contents, it is disturbed by the continuous data input in talking situation. And that brought the serious difference in the richness of the memory of the contents, in other words, impression. This result also suggests the importance of appropriately inserting in-between environment with no exhibition, in order to make an impressive exhibition plan. And when the environment is relaxing such as making visitors quietly rest or walk, the memory after appreciation is likely to be rich and long-lasting.

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    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 49-57
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020


     In the recent academic study of architecture, "spatial composition theory" has achieved a certain result for comprehension of various architectural forms. The theory allows a cross-sectoral analysis beyond building types by extracting an arrangement of abstract volumes without finishes and scale. On the other hand, along with the practice of new materials which are continuously developed, many contemporary architectural works based on "Critical regionalism" are appearing that utilize existential information on conventionalized materials. Under these circumstances, we think that analyzing the complementary relationship between the compositional character related to the spatial forms and the superficial character related to finishes of materials will give practical insight for designing and comprehending contemporary architecture. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the spatial integration design through superimposing the compositional character by rooms and the superficial character by the finishes targeting to contemporary art museums that deploy rooms with various functions sequentially.


     Firstly, we extract rooms which are the unit space from museum and analyze its function, arrangement and continuity; then we regard the relationship among rooms obtained as "Rooms Layout" and situate the compositional character of spatial integration. Secondly, we extract finishes on the spatial component faces and analyze its classification, arrangement and continuity; then we regard the relationship among finishes obtained as "Finishes Layout" and situate the superficial character of spatial integration. Subsequently, we elicit types of the space integration design in contemporary art museums by superimposing these compositional and superficial characters of spatial integration. In addition, we compare each type and organize the relationships among the types.


     The result of superposing and examining compositional and superficial characters of spatial integration in contemporary art museums elicited 11 major types of spatial integration design. Considering the three types that match the integration scope of both "Rooms Layout" and "Finishes Layout" derive the remaining eight types, it is possible to regard that the gap of the integration scope by the composition and the superficies creates the diversity of contemporary art museums. In addition, because there is no case that "no integration" in "Finishes Layout", it is possible to consider that finish is used as a means for integrating spaces potentially in contemporary art museum. In this way, we clarified that the spatial integration in contemporary art museums is characterized by variously combining the relationships such as dependence on the function, whole and part, interior and exterior, at different aspects of compositional and superficial means.


     Since the study that systematically considering the spatial integration of architecture from the relationship between spatial composition and superficial finish has never been seen, this study is useful as a document to comprehend the design method of the contemporary architecture which has a stronger relationship that space form and material as well as art museum.

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  • The case of Tottori Prefecture
    Hideko ASAI, Masahiko KUMAGAI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 59-69
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This research is having for its object to grasp the state of the support for future's wide area long refuge by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The way grasps an actual condition survey and the present support circumstances of the number of acceptance refuges of each urban and rural prefectures first. Next a will investigation in the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th to the long refuge in Tottori prefecture who supported it with a seismic hazard in the first whole country publicly to hit housing is performed.

     (1)The number of people of an acceptance refuge in prefectures is grasp after the earthquake disaster by an information system of a government. The refuge who doesn't register can't grasp is the current state. Because it's also pointed out that a refuge repeats movement with passage of the number of years, the refuge's trend grasp is difficult.

     (2)Aid package to a refuge by an acceptance prefecture is described.

     There are few prefectures the move policy, which is special case support for a temporary refuge by an investigation and is aggressive in fiscal year 2011.

     Support of a new acceptance "has been ended" about "the present support situation" according to an investigation in fiscal year 2013, but more than half is occupied. It's thought that aid package to a refuge out the prefecture thrust at a break as the reason. It "isn't applied" about "application of settlement promotion aid package" as one of aid package, but it's about 70 percent. A theme concerning return, move policies and the medium and long-term view requires argument based on the support which has passed from the thing.

     It doesn't come to a conclusion as the trend of the country about "demanding repayment right". On the other hand, most prefectures go about "support of demanding repayment right applying" as the acceptance prefectures, and the contents are various.

     (3)A result of the will investigation of the refuge who lives in Tottori prefecture is indicated. Various aid package is proposed as the recent years' trend of the refuge support. The aid package a wide area refuge needs on the one hand is as follows.

     An earthquake disaster for 1st year is the overall support which includes "improvement of life environment", "support in a residence", "job and starting working support" and "funds of the present cost of living".

     An earthquake disaster for 3rd year is continual life support in the refuge place, which includes "job and starting working support" and "support in a residence".

     The earthquake disasters for 5th year are individual correspondence as well as continual life support in the refuge place, which includes "support in a residence", "job and starting working support" and "improvement of life environment".

     (4)It's based on such current state, and it seems to work on support system making which can be shifted to the new shape. It nestled close to consciousness and needs of a refuge individual such as "move" and "return" with various support groups including administration.

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  • Masato FUJIGA, Shigeo OKABE
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 71-78
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This paper studied the deliberation process of revise the urban planning law by the Home Ministry directly after World War II.

     As World War II came to an end, the Home Ministry organized items to solve prewar urban planning issues and realized the necessity to construct a phased planning system including central planning, regional planning and urban planning. From a legal system aspect, it was necessary to associate and discuss the multiple related laws including revisions of urban planning law, the enactment of regional planning law and the enforcement of special urban planning law aimed at war-damage reconstruction.

     As preparations were underway for war-damage reconstruction, revisions of urban planning law were regarded as important. First, considerations were given to revisions of necessary parts in former urban planning law with the aim of placing regulations which support the creation of the ideal spatial image of postwar restoration such as establishing new zones as well as establishing construction regulations and land readjustment in urban planning law.

     Afterwards, not only revisions of urban planning law, but also discussions about new bill that include regional planning which deals with the coordination between cities and the expansion of cities were conducted. This draft was to organize regional planning led by the central government and urban planning led by regional government, and to suggest a unified framework from the coordination between cities to architectural regulation.

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  • Focusing on the case of Nishinari district, Osaka city, Japan
    Tetsuo KIDOKORO, Hongwei HSIAO, Ryo FUKUDA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 79-88
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This study aims at the hypothesis verification on the polarization to mega-city regions and urban divide. In the first part, we examined the polarization to mega-city regions in Japan focusing on the aspect of concentration of wealth based on various economic statistics as well as the record of public investment. In the second part, we pick up Osaka city as the case analysis for the urban divide inside the mega-city region based on the cluster analysis and analyzed the current conditions of urban divide in Osaka city. In the third part, we shed light on the type of living with diversity in Airin area, Nishinari ward, Osaka city. Through the analysis based on the interview survey to the local real estate company, we discuss the mechanism of housing provision for the realization of diversity.

     The acceleration of the concentration of wealth to Tokyo is clearly observed in Japan since 2000s. In particular, the polarization of wealth as well as the highest income class to the central part of Tokyo is ever accelerating these days under the neoliberal urban policies. In the urban scale analysis in Osaka city, gentrification trends in the central city areas are obvious these days. On the other hands, the concentration of poverty is observed in inner areas to the south. As a result, the urban divide in both social and spatial terms are clearly observed in Osaka city. In particular, the Airin area of Nishinari district, Osaka city worked as the area where daily-based construction workers are concentrated and it has become the area where poverty is concentrated since many of workers in this area have been aged and lost jobs.

     According to the interview surveys to real estate agents who work in Nishinari district, conversion of the workers’ hostel to the apartments for the jobless people who received public assistance was widely observed. In addition, they are further converted to the gest-houses for international tourists recently. Investment by Chinese people is also a new trend in this area. This phenomenon shows the ambivalent characteristics of inner areas that they often become a socially excluded areas but, at the same time, they function as the place to accept a wide range of immigrants and thus they become a source of diversity as the gateway to the city. It is recommended that the improvement of the inner areas should fully consider this ambivalent characteristic of the inner areas.

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  • Takashi HOSHI, Yukiko IIJIMA, Tsutomu MARUOKA, Hiroki KANAI, Kumpei YO ...
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 89-99
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     The city to create a location optimization plan (LOP) is increasing, with the aim of forming a compact city. LOP should set the Dwelling Attraction Area (DAA) of the residential induction zone, induce residency there, and maintain the population density within the same area as the population of the entire city is reduced.

     As result of attracting residents and maintaining population density in DAA, outside of the residential induction zone, it becomes an area aimed at reducing the population, and there is a concern about the deterioration of the living environment. In many local medium-sized cities, suburbanization is still underway today. Moreover, there are a lot of cities where suburbs are progressing even if the total population decreases. On the other hand, in suburban areas, which were systematically developed during the rapid population growth period, there is a concern about the rapid increase in the number of vacant lots and vacant houses due to the progression of population decline and aging. Areas urbanized by sprawl, the "circulation of land use" is difficult to generate.

     In recent years, the occurrence of vacant houses due to the population decline in cities is an urgent issue. Therefore, it is important to understand the status of housing updates in order to consider the planning goals in suburban areas.

     The purpose of this study is to analyze the changes in urban areas of cities where the population of suburban areas has already be declining, and to obtain knowledge to examine urban area planning goals.

     As a result, the following points were clarified.

     In the medium-sized city of 200 to 500 thousand people, there is no city where the population is consolidating between 1995 and 2015. The change in the direction of non-consolidation is a general trend.

     The difference in the population density of the area where have already urbanized and the suburban area is almost a decreasing trend, and non-consolidation is progressing from this respect. Of these, in Hakodate city where the population decrease in suburban area is the most preceding, the so-called sponge making progresses in the area where have already urbanized.

     On the other hand, in the suburban area of Hakodate city, the renewal of urban areas and the decrease of vacant lots are progressing even if the population decline continues. In addition, in the four representative districts of the urban area type, the renewal of the house has occurred under the population decrease. At the same time, the vacant house rate has increased significantly over the last 20 years. If there is a re-tenant in the vacant house, the vacant period is about two years.

     From the above, the following was obtained as a finding to the planning goals of the suburban urban area in the population decrease phase in the medium-sized city.

     It can be said that it is difficult consolidation to reverse this direction in the tendency of the population distribution change in the urbanization promotion areas is in the suburbanization and leveling.

     Moreover, the renewal of the urban area in the suburban area is continued even under the population declining from the actual situation of the urban area change in Hakodate city. Even if the house does not change, the resident's replacement continues. Therefore, the sustainability as the residential area is secured without the one-sided vacant lot making and the vacant house progress.

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  • - Toward smart decline for Ibaraki city in Northern Osaka Metropolitan Area -
    Haruka KATO, Kiyoko KANKI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 101-111
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     The purpose of this paper is to evaluates a smart decline scenario in metropolitan sprawl areas to examine its potential as an alternative to the Japanese compact city policy. This paper defined “smart decline” as design methods intended to satisfy residents’ lifestyle needs in the context of population decline. Testing smart decline scenario would provide the Japanese government with information about renovations that would help it to achieve desirable levels of infrastructure in sprawl area. This study utilized relevant research methodologies and analyses in a case study of Ibaraki city in the Northern Osaka Metropolitan Area. Especially, this paper had four results in bellow.

     Chapter 2 clarified driving forces that influence on future metropolitan areas. The method of chapter 2 was semi-structured interviewing for the administrative staff of Ibaraki City government. As a result, the chapter got 24 factors and two driving forces; “Land uses” and “Urban facilities”. Based on the driving forces, this chapter made scenario matrix. The scenario matrix shows that four distinct scenarios; they are scenario to utilize vacant land, scenario to withdraw from the suburban, scenario to accumulate on one pole, scenario to accumulate on multipolar. Based on the scenario matrix, Chapter 3 analyzed “Diversity of land uses” and Chapter 4 analyzed “Location of urban facilities”.

     Chapter 3 clarified “Diversity of land uses” from the perspective of entropy of land use. The method of Chapter 3 was GIS analysis in Northern Osaka Metropolitan Area. The result shows that entropy of land uses in sprawl area is higher than other residential clusters. Besides, they suggest that the land use of residence, farm lands, industry and park/green influence positively on diversity of land use.

     On the other hand, chapter 4 clarified location of urban facilities from the perspective intention to live. The method of chapter 4 was questionnaire survey for 3000 people who live in Ibaraki city. The results suggest that the type of facility influenced residential intentions differently: the type of facility desired near transit stations was different from the type desired for the neighborhood. For example, ‘nursery/kindergarten’ facilities near transit stations positively influenced the residential intentions of the respondents in sprawl areas.

     Based on the results of chapter 3 and chapter 4, chapter 5 evaluated effective scenario as smart decline from the perspective of walkability. For the purpose, this chapter had three steps. First, this chapter made flow chart of each scenario by the result of “Diversity of land uses in Chapter 3” and “Location of urban facilities in Chapter 4”. Second, it calculated Walkability Wi(i) of the four scenarios by walkability indicator which Kato et al. (2017) developed. Lastly, it compared the Wi(i) of four scenarios and current walkability with p value. The results suggest that citizens were able to sustain their sustainable living in sprawl areas, regardless of the scenario. Among the scenarios, the scenario to utilize vacant land is slightly more effective than scenario to accumulate on multipolar. Therefore, the “scenario to utilize vacant land” was found to be the effective as an alternative to the Japanese compact city policy. As a result, this paper defined the “scenario to utilize vacant land” as smart decline in sprawl area. Smart decline would maintain the sprawl areas in realistic ways.

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  • -A case of shopping streets at the metropolitan areas-
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 113-120
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     The purpose of this study is to understand and analyze the actual statuses of the shop-around behaviors of visitors and the inter-store structures in shopping streets.

     More than one shopping street in which the number of chain stores had increased were subject to this study. With this, this study reveals the impacts made by chain stores on the shop-around behaviors of visitors and inter-store structures in shopping streets.

     Consequently, looking at the business types of chain stores, whereas those stores selling shopping goods and convenience products presented high values for their capability of attracting and relaying customers, service-related shops including cell-phone ones demonstrated low values. In the meantime, paying attention to their business types, supermarkets, in comparison with other business types, succeeded in attracting customers from a further distance and wider areas. Meanwhile, drug stores frequently caused avoidance behaviors among them. Also, from the perspective of the inter-store network in the shopping street in a whole, a tendency was observed where the inter-store structures get more segmentalized and the generation range of shopping-around behaviors get smaller as the ratio of chain stores becomes higher. Generally speaking, there is a limitation to the number and kinds of products that a single store can deal with and therefore it is ideal for small and medium-sized stores to complement with each other in a shopping street. However, the increasing number of chain stores might restrict the inter-store structures in a shopping street.

     In order to improve the future shop-around behaviors in a shopping street, it is necessary to understand the shop-around behaviors and the inter-store structures with classifying a shopping street into respective areas, instead of just understanding them as a whole. More specifically, it is thought that the best arrangement of stores can be achieved through the proper management of tenant distributions in a shopping street with the correct understanding of the chain stores’ capability of attracting and relaying customers.

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  • - By applying Agent Analysis in Space Syntax studies -
    Toshiyuki KANEDA, Akira OTA, Junya KOBAYASHI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 121-129
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Agent Asnalysis (AA) using a vision-driven agent simulation EVA (Exosomatic Visual Architecture) on a fine grid compared to visibility graph analysis (VGA) is not well known in Japan. Turner made EVA, a basic model of "natural movement" proposed by Hillier.

     The authors conducted an encounter survey on weekday and weekend in 2017 in Kanayama, Nagoya, Aichi, and performed a correlation analysis between the counts of pedestrians on each street and various indicators by VGA and AA. As a result, One of the VGA indicators had a maximum correlation coefficient (single correlation) with the number of pedestrians of 0.320, but the an AA indicator showed a maximum of 0.800, and a strong correlation was confirmed (N=178).

     So, in this paper, after examining multiple regression model selection by introducing VGA indicators, we will try model selection by introducing the AA indicators instead of the VGA indicators.

     Our analytical framework explores the three contributions of accessibility, facility volume (land use intensity) and urban form, which are candidate factors (groups). In the first analysis, as the candidate factors (groups) of urban form, the connectivity and the global integration value as a VGA indicator, we use two kinds of footprint counts (Random Generated) in the second analysis, and (Station Generated) in the third analysis, both as the AA indicators. Each of Agent Analysis indicators means one simulation run result with 2000 agents in 2000 steps, but the generation points are randomly set in the walkable space in Random Generated case, and are set in each of eight station entrances and exits in Station Generated case.

     The findings from our analyses are summarized below.

     First, looking at the selection results of the first models that introduced the VGA indicators, for both weekday and weekend models, the variables are adopted without omission from the three factors of accessibility, facility volumes, and urban form. This supports the effectiveness as a factor of the VGA indicators for an urban form indicators in Kanayama dictrict. In addition, as the features of pedestrians’ distribution on weekend for weekday, the ground floor commercial building coverage rate are extracted.

     Next, the second models that introduced the footprints (AA, Random Generated) indicator in both the weekday and weekend have improved both of multiple correlation coefficient and AIC values compared to the first model. In addition, the feature structure in the first model is preserved in this model. Moreover, the intensity of the footprints (AA, Random Generated) indicator is greater than that of the VGA indicators. This indicates that this indicator is a powerful urban form indicators that can improve and replace the VGA indicators.

     Finally, the third models incorporating the footprints (AA, Station Generated) indicator in both the weekday and weekend shows the improvement of both multiple correlation coefficient and AIC compared to the second model. In addition, we can find the models also preserve the features in Kanayama also. However, although the intensity of the footprints (AA, Station Generated) indicator introduced as an urban form indicators became greater than the footprints (Random Generated) indicator, the intensity of the accessibility indicator (distance from the station) decreased. From this, it became clear that the footprints (Station Generated) indicator is not only strong as an urban form indicator but also has the property as an accessibility indicator.

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  • Megumi OKUYA, Osamu OBA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 131-140
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Mountains have been worshiped in Japan since ancient times. Similar to Mt. Fuji, Mt. Ontake has been a site of worship ascents since the Edo era. We previously examined the style of mountain huts on Mt. Fuji during the Edo era, and in the present study, we have expanded our scope to Mt. Ontake. We conducted field surveys on the Kurosawa and Otaki trails on Mt. Ontake and found a common architectural characteristic, the so-called “central path style” floor plan (or “Nakadori style”), in which the trail passes through the mountain huts. A previous study reported that this floor plan is similar to that of somagoya (loggers’ huts) in this area. Therefore, we examined historical materials and investigated the establishment and transformation of this “central path style” floor plan and the relationship between mountain huts for worship ascents and forestry.

     Many mountain maps drawn in the Edo or Meiji era have legends showing mountain huts on as opposed to beside trails, suggesting that the “central path style” floor plan might date back to the late Edo era. Mountain huts were first donated as guardian huts around holy places, places for religious training, and shelters against the harsh mountain environment. They were then expanded to serve as teahouses or lodgings. In addition, many of the mountain huts on the Otaki trail had the “central path style” floor plan since the Meiji era. Since the Edo era, residents of Kurosawa and especially Otaki village in Kiso valley earned their living by felling trees. The loggers’ huts in Kiso had a “central path style” floor plan and was called “Nakagoya”. Both trails had a mountain hut for worship ascents called “Nakagoya.” It seems that the “central path style” floor plan we discovered on field surveys was inherited from somagoya, based on the livelihood of the residents.

     On the other hand, we found another, lost architectural characteristic from old documents called the “double hut style” floor plan (or “Ryogoya style”). At Tanohara on the Otaki trail, two huts were found opposite each other on the trail from the Edo to the Meiji era. However, by the Taisho era, the space between the huts was covered and changed into an interior, i.e., the “central path style” floor plan. We found a similar religious building with a “double hut style” floor plan on the Yoshida trail on Mt. Fuji. Since the Edo era, both the Tanohara Ryogoya on Mt. Ontake and the haiden (front shrine) of Fuji Omuro Sengen Jinja on Mt. Fuji were used as komorido, where ascenders, especially women, would chant, practice abstinence, and sleep. Thus, it seems that the “double hut style” floor plan was universally established for mountain worship.

     Mt. Ontake is an object of worship for believers and provides a living for local villagers. The mountain huts that have supported worship ascents since the Edo era have architectural characteristics related to mountain worship and livelihoods. Both the “Ryogoya” and “Nakadori” styles have a strong connection with huts and trails, and this is a special characteristic of the mountain huts on Mt. Ontake.

     After the volcanic eruption of Mt. Ontake in 2014, some mountain huts on Kurosawa and Otaki trails were closed, demolished or reconstructed. We hope the results of our research help preserve traditions of the mountain huts on Mt. Ontake.

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  • Article from Michinotomo “Architecture and clothing for our religion”
    Akinobu YOSHIKAWA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 141-150
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Masuno Kosetsu was a prominent figure in Tenrikyo becoming the Shikishima Grand Church head in his late 20’s, and the president of the company publishing the periodical, Michinotomo, where he edited and also contributed an article “Architecture and Clothing in our Religion” in its 1925 May edition. This article retains a vital role in understanding the architectural intent and thoughts of the Tenrikyo at the time being one of the oldest written disquisition about the architectural aspects of the religion. Here, Masuno categorizes the features and characteristics of the Tenrikyo architecture into five periods, each a decade long, starting in 1888 when the buildings for the regional churches began.

     In what Masuno defined as the first period from 1888 to 1897, he defines the regional churches built during this period to be the origins of Tenrikyo church designs. Analyzing the constructed churches in those periods, the features he did not describe revealed a style. Common features consist of a wood constructed single storied ceramic tile covered hipped roof with an entrance at the front with space extending further to the back. The similar architectural features among these first generation churches suggest some discussion took place within the followers to create a standard style for the church when it did not have one to follow. Masuno considers the churches from the first period to be “dark and fragile, ” and praises the architectural development of the churches from the second period of 1898 to 1907, to “give the impression of cheerful and glorious.” As the religion grew, the need for a larger building to house the followers pressed the development of the church constructed during this period to become larger. Churches in this period although still single storied, consist of double layered roof raising the ceiling height resulting in a more airy and brighter atmosphere inside relative to the first generation of churches leading to the before mentioned impression Masuno have had. The third period 1908 to 1917 was what Masuno called it as "a stale period" with no particular development to found in his view. It was a period when the colossal construction was taking place at the Tenrikyo headquarters. The completion of the headquarter buildings provided a new reference for the regional churches to follow. Masuno describes the fourth period of 1918 to 1925 as a period when "focus was placed into the regional dioceses." In numbers constructed, the third period has built more. However, those dioceses were mostly converted buildings. As such, Masuno's assessment is correct where all of the nine constructed dioceses was explicitly designed and built for this purpose including the Nara diocese where Masuno was the head then. The fifth period is the period after the published article. Masuno predicts several new churches constructed including those rebuilding after The Great Kanto Earthquake such as Azuma, the first concrete church completed in 1931. In the same year, Tohon church also completed reconstructing their church using a steel-framed concrete system. The use of new construction material reveals their concerns towards fires. This period was also the time wood constructed churches were at their peak in scale and glamour in the likes of Koriyama, Koga, Heishin, and Shikishima; the church Masuno was the head of until his early death in 1928. These churches were similar in size as the headquarter building, and in some cases more glamorous in its ornamentation.

     Further analyzing the built churches of the periods Masuno defined in his article confirms his assessment and revealed the architectural origins, trends, and shifts in regional churches and dioceses of Tenrikyo at the time.

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  • Akinori MIZOGUCHI, Takanori YONEZAWA, Masaki KOIWA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 151-160
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     In this paper, we showed that Dimensional planning method of column interval was Shiwari-sei (枝割制), and Dimension of Kumimono (組物) was planed by Taruki-wari (垂木割) in the Zen style architecture. Then, we presented its concrete technique.

     In the conventional research, four methods of the column spacing dimensional planning of the Zen style building have been assumed: “Kansu-sei (完数制)”(the method of controlling the dimension between columns with the Syaku(尺), in principle.”), “Aita (アイタ)”(the method to control the dimension between columns by the width of Kumimono in Tsumegumi (詰組)), “ratio (比)”(the method that uses a simple ratio such as 3: 2 or 4: 3 between the central bay and the side), and “Shiwari-sei”(the planning method based on the distance between adjacent rafters, measuring from the center of the rafters, called "Isshi”.). Among them, Shiwari-sei has been considered to be relatively unimportant, because of the characteristics of the Zen style architecture such as the fan rafter, the Zen style Kumimono and Tsumegumi. However, it is pointed out that the Shiwari-sei is a precondition of Aita from the result of the Architectural technical book research. In addition, the almost Wayo style (和様) buildings had been planned by Shiwari-sei, and this style was the dominant style in the medieval period. And even in some remnants which considered planed by Kansu-sei, is compatible with Shiwari-sei. Based on these, in this paper, we examined the possibility that Shiwari-sei existed as dimensional planning method in the medieval Zen style Buddhist Halls. We analyzed following four buildings. Shohukuji Jizodo (正福寺地蔵堂, 1407), Seihakuji Butsuden(清白寺仏殿, 1415), Tokoji Hondo (東光寺本堂, before 1517), Okunoin Bentendo (奥之院弁天堂, Middle Muromachi).

     As a result, it was found that the column spacing dimensional planning for each building was designed by Shiwari-sei and the size of Kumimono was also planned by Taruki-wari. In addition to the Shofukuji Jizodo, where the use of the split system was pointed out conventionally, we found a concrete Taruki-wari plan that is latent in a building (Seihakuji Butsuden, Tokoji Hondo) that was previously considered unrelated to it. As the column spacing composition gets under the influence of Tsumegumi and the center bay and the side bay settles in a 3: 2 relationship, Taruki-wari was limited to Shiwari that could maintain this relationship. Its combinations were 19.5shi and 13shi at Seihakuji Butsuden and 24shi and 16shi at Tokoji Hondo. By fixing the number of rafters between columns in this way, the planning method changes, for example, to the technique in which the dimension of one branch is determined as a result of making the size of the center bay the Kansu. It was shown that the maximum width of Kumimono was determined based on the Isshi dimensions thus obtained. At the same time, we also shown that these dimensions could be easily and accurately obtained using the carpenter's square in those day.

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    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 161-170
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein along with the Architect Paul Engelmann designed Stonborough Villa in Vienna. Wittgenstein disliked discussions amongst architectural experts, and never published his accomplishment in architectural magazines. Engelmann made several publications but left no records about the Villa or its design theory. Except for Wittgenstein's family and friends, Wittgenstein’s contribution to architecture was not widely recognized. In other words, the concept of Stonborough Villa is unknown.

     This research looks to clarify Wittgenstein’s construction theory by utilizing the measurements of the Villa. The previous study revealed the role played by double doors of the Villa’s opening-closing mechanisms and the Dimensional system applied. However, during the study, inconsistencies between the Walls in the Main Floor Plan and the constructed building were found. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the inner False Wall and the symmetrical wall surface of the Doors.

     The field survey revealed the following two differences in the measurements.

     A) The False Wall in the Breakfast Room Plan design was not constructed.

     B) The False Wall built in Margarethe’s Room is not present in the Plan.

     In other words, it can be inferred that the difference between the Main Floor Plans and the actual buildings is likely to have been produced by Wittgenstein who supervised the construction site.

     With the presence of the False Wall on the inner wall surface to which the window openings belong, the wall from the right corner to the False Wall can be perceived as part of the Front Wall surface. In other words, according to the Plan, the center axis of the inner wall surface, and the location of the opening coincide, positioning the False Wall in a way that the inner wall surface has a symmetrical structure. The position of this internal axis line also aligns with the position of the center axis of the external wall surface and the False Wall constructed on the internal wall surface confirm that the False Wall creates a symmetrical structure on the inner and outer Plan of the Villa. However, the on- site results revealed that the False Wall of the breakfast room, which was planned in the design, was not actually constructed. As a result, regarding the symmetry of the wall surface, the balance of the inner wall surface is lost when the False Wall is absent, and only the symmetry of the outer wall surface remains.

     In the existing Plan, Margarethe’s Room is the only area on the main floor which cannot be read as a symmetrical wall construction. The symmetric structure of the interior walls of the other main rooms are facing the exterior wall surfaces, while in Margarethe’s Room there is a two-door arrangement installed on the wall facing towards the exterior, they are not considered a symmetrical component. However, on the constructed wall surface of Margarethe’s Room, a False Wall is located at the right end portion, like in the inner wall surface of the breakfast room, the central axis of the window and wall coincides confirming the symmetrical order. The construction of the False Wall on the inner wall surface of Margarethe’s Room allows for wall structure symmetry like the one displayed in other main rooms. On the other hand, the Salon and Margarethe’s Room are connected by a Double Door; the glass door installed in the room side cannot be fully opened due to the False Wall interfering. This shows a preference for the aesthetic value over the practicality of the room. To summarize, Stonborough Villa’s False Wall was utilized to create symmetry, which is a crucial point of the architectural language of this structure.

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    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 171-181
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     This paper discusses the historical perspectives and social significance of the Butokuden martial arts halls that were built and managed by the official branches of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society) in Taiwan under the Japanese colonial rule. The Butokuden halls were constructed in Kyoto in 1895 by the Dai Nihon Butoku Kai for the purpose of endorsing martial arts which had fallen into disuse after the Meiji Restoration, and construction spread throughout Japan. In Taiwan, a great many Butokuden halls were constructed. From the 1930s, there more splendid Butokuden buildings being built in Taiwan than in Japan. This paper analyzes 26 Butokuden halls that were built in various places up until that point.

     The Taiwan branch of the Dai Nihon Butoku Kai was established in 1906. Branch offices were situated within the prefectures of the branch, and further chapters were established within the districts of the branch offices that organized the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai throughout the country. However, there were established committees within various parts of Taiwan before, and activities began early. As a result, several martial arts practice halls were built in various places featuring architecture that had the appearance of a temple that was built in Kyoto in 1899, but were smaller in scale.

     From 1913, the construction of full-scale Butokuden halls began within large prefectures such as Taichung, Tainan, Hsinchu, Taipei, Kaohsiung, and so on. They featured varying external appearances, all of which referred to the Kyoto Butokuden hall. From 1925, the construction of the Butokuden halls began to spread among the branches of countries within the districts of the prefectures. They were generally small in scale, however, the Butokudens within the Lengko district (Taichung Prefecture), Zhongli district (Hsinchu Prefecture), and Taikah district (Taichung Prefecture) were large in scale and it can be noted that they shared a common external feature of a large wooden Irimoya-style roof and a Irimoya-style driveway.

     The activities of the Dai Nihon Butoku Kai were covered by a membership fund on which the construction of the Butokuden halls was reliant upon at first. However, as larger scale and grander Butokuden halls were built, the construction cost was paid via collected donations. Large amounts of donations were collected from volunteers in the area where the Butokuden halls were built, and from companies that had emerged from the industrial promotion policy of the government-general of Taiwan.

     The fact that such construction funds were donated suggests that the Butokuden halls were recognized as meaningful facilities for the public. In some cases, the planning of the facility was led by local administrations, economic organizations, or autonomous organizations as organized by the government-general of Taiwan. Further, the Butokuden halls were not only facilities for martial arts demonstration but also used as community centers.

     The Butokuden hall, which encourages martial arts and has a temple style design, is understood to be responsible for the assimilation policies within colonial rule. The government-general of Taiwan and local governments provided support for their construction, such as free land rental. However, the study within this paper revealed that the facilities of the Butokuden halls began to find a role and value as a public facility within the local regions.

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  • Through analysis of enshrining, reconstruction and relocation of shrines described in “Jisha Kakiage”
    Hiroki KOMINAMI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 183-190
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Tokyo has a lot of shrines and these form complex and diverse Ujiko-iki areas at present. These territories were inherited from a situation of the faith in Edo period critically. In this paper, specialties of Ujiko in the city of Edo are understood deeply through analysis of enshrinement, reconstruction and relocation of shrines described in “Jisha Kakiage”.

     Firstly, the distribution of Ujiko is restored from “Jisha Kakiage” and then the following three points are pointed out. First issue is that there were some shrines to account samurai residences as Ujiko. Second issue is that there were some towns to belong to several shrines. Third issue is that there were some shrines to have Ujiko towns locating in separate places.

     In chapter 3, it is discussed that there were two types tutelary shrines for Edo castle town and for each town, samurai residence or temple in the city of Edo by analyzing enshrining and reconstruction of shrines described in “Jisha Kakiage”. Successive shoguns have enshrined new shrines and intervened some shrines by reconstructing these buildings or certificating lands. The intervention to shrines by shoguns has been strengthening the personal inclination than tutelary shrines against the whole Edo castle town. On the other hand, inhabitants in the city of Edo have enshrined new shrines and refurbished old shrines for tutelary shrines against each personal territory. While these tutelary shrines in same cases overlapped, there two types tutelary shrines. Almost of shrines to account samurai residences as Ujiko formed a territory of Ujiko above a whole district. This fact indicates that the relationships based on territorial acknowledgement between So-chinju, which is a big tutelary shrine guarding a wide district, and Ujiko of these shrines were established in the city of Edo. These shrines are almost same to tutelary shrines for Edo castle town in this chapter and divided territories of Ujiko without overlap. However, some communities of Ujiko consisted of a few towns or samurai residences were settled over the wide district territories of Ujiko. The above multi-layered territory is most important character of the shrine religion in the city of Edo.

     In chapter 4, relocations of shrines are described in the transition of the city form of Edo from a medieval town to the premodern castle town by analyzing relocation of shrines described in “Jisha Kakiage”. Relocation of shrines were able to be classified continuous relocation or advanced one from the viewpoint to increase or decrease their precinct lands. The latter relocation has been executed by the shogunate government or sometimes Daimyo families in order to convert a meaning of shrine as an object of faith. Through these relocations, a lot of shrines were converted into tutelary shrines of new towns or whole districts developed for city functions. In the other words, the shogunate government and inhabitants in the city of Edo activated the land of Edo with shrines like the following. One is to build a shrine by enshrining or relocating from other places as a tutelary shrine. Other is to refurbish an original shrine of the land. Then, these shrines were sometimes relocated by the demand of the shogunate government or self-control and changed their place to guard. Some towns changed relationships as Ujiko when shrines were relocated to another place and the degree of faith swayed.

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  • Study on military ceremonial space in modern Tokyo, Part 1
    Kaori HASEGAWA
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 191-201
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     At the beginning of Meiji Period, modern military system was installed in Japan, modelled after Western countries. Since then, military ceremony, as well as its manners and regulations, had been consolidated. Among them, Kanpeishiki, Japanese military parade conducted in the presence of the Emperor as Daigensui (Commander-in-chief), is one of the most significant Imperial ceremony in modern Tokyo, involving the general public in the city.

     This study aims to clarify the characteristics of ceremonial space used for Kanpeishiki in modern Tokyo, focusing on temporary use of three parade grounds (Hibiya, Aoyama, and Yoyogi) and the Imperial Palace Plaza from Meiji Period to pre-war Showa Period. Since those parade grounds and Imperial estates had covered large areas in the city, it is important to characterize their ceremonial use in understanding urban formation of modern Tokyo, especially as a military city.

     In the second chapter, the forming process of Kanpeishiki and the development process of those sites are reviewed as a premise for this study. Parade grounds in Tokyo, established for military training and its ceremony, had been redeployed twice with the influence of military and political factors, receding from the Imperial Palace. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza, developed as a symbolic plaza in the center of Tokyo, had become sacred space by being used as a site of imperial ceremony including Kanpeishiki.

     The third chapter shows the site transition of Kanpeishiki by creating the chronological table. Kanpeishiki, started as a closed ceremony inside the Imperial Palace within the Emperor and limited people at the beginning of Meiji Period, had become a public ceremony in the city by being conducted in parade grounds. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza also started to be used for Kanpeishiki from the end of Taisho Period.

     In the fourth chapter, the procedure and the usage pattern of each site are revealed by analyzing operation manuals of Kanpeishiki made by the army. As well as the procedure, the site usage pattern has been formulated from the 1870’s through the 1880’s in Hibiya Parade Ground. The basic layout plan of the Emperor and troops is almost common among three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza, but the scale of ceremony had become larger, especially the space for the general public.

     In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that sites used for Kanpeishiki in modern Tokyo has the following characteristics.

     1) The parade grounds had been used as main ceremonial sites from Meiji period to pre-war Showa Period, and those sites had moved westward due to redeployment of military reservation. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza was also used occasionally as a ceremonial site. Three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza met conditions necessary for ceremonial use of Kanpeishiki regarding possession, size and figure, but they have different characteristics in scenic beauty and location. It is presumed that this difference led to combination use of parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza.

     2) The basic site usage pattern was formulated and basically common among three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza, on the other hand, its scale had become larger to accommodate thousands of people. It can be said that this formulation enables the Imperial Palace Plaza, not originally established for military purpose, to be used as a site of Kanpeishiki. Additionally, it can also be pointed out that not only the Emperor and soldiers but also the general public had come to be positioned as important participants of military ceremony by the nation.

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  • A study on heritage management and role of World Heritage in post-socialist Romania -1
    Maiko TATEZAKI, Toshikazu HANAZATO, Riichi MIYAKE
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 203-212
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

     Socialist regimes in Eastern Europe carried out harsh repression on religious institutions, but in Romania, the regime was flexible compared with Soviet Union, where Orthodox monasteries were closed by force and torn down. Romanian way of “carrot-and-stick” tactics to the Orthodox Church watered down the resistance of certain clergies and believers while the religious monuments were acknowledged as the tool for the national identity. This paper focuses on the formation of the heritage policy and its implementation by the socialist government vis-à-vis the monastic tradition in Romania.

     Three parties should be analysed in terms of the intervention for conservation: State, Orthodox Church and the experts of historical monuments. The official competent body for heritage conservation was formed under the state committees for culture and national planning, but as long as this section was not adequately evaluated by the regime tops, this became nearly an asylum of the experts who continued their identity from the kingdom period and kept liberal attitude by working with local church communities.

     The Direcţie a Monumentelor Istorice (DMI), started in 1959, played a key role for implementing the restoration works for the Church. This direction kept taking the initiative until the middle of 1970’s. According to the budgetary table of their operations during the 1960’s, three among 39 counties and Bucharest received the benefit of high ratio of the budget: Suceava in Moldavia (15.7% of national budget for conservation), Braşov in Transylvania (12.7%) and Constanţa in Wallachia (10.4%). Since the first is the cradle of Romanian Orthodox Church, the conservation works for such monasteries as Voroneţ and Dragomirna were considered crucial. In the second, it was fortification rather than Protestant Church. The third signifies the sites of Roman antiquities. In the monasteries like Voroneţ, closed by the secularization policy in the late 19th century, DMI paradoxically accelerated the pace of conservation due to the absence of the church intervention.

     In the cases of Suceaviţa, Doragomirna and Vorneţ, the restoration works should be underlined by the contemporary spirit. This was played by an architect Ioana Grigorescu. These three projects occupied more than 70% of the total budget in Suceava County (11% of the national budget). The analysis of her preserved documents reveals that, besides the restoration of the authentic church buildings, nuns’ cells, dining halls and even exhibition halls were specially designed with dynamic forms inspired by the Romanian tradition.

     In Romania special terminology for urban planning “systematization” had been employed since 1920’s but during the socialist period, Marxist connotation with scientific and top-down approach was added so as to form a nation-wide planning conception, which obliged urbanization by migration of rural population. Conservation of historical monuments was so seriously affected by this planning policy that the church communities on comună (village) level suffered enormously. The rehabilitation of historical cities such as Craiova and Constanţa were recognized important in the early 1970’s responding to the trend of the West, but Vrancea Earthquake of 1977 suspended this movement and squeezed DMI to a much smaller section.

     In this sense, the balance among the triangle State – Church – Professional was barely stabilized, despite its sensitiveness, in the early period of Ceauşescu Regime. Input to the conservation policy by timely contact with UNESCO played the role of counter-balance against the pressure of systematization by the leaders of the socialist hierarchy.

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  • Tomohiro KUROYANAGI, Yasuhito FUJITA, Sachiko HATTORI
    2020 Volume 85 Issue 767 Pages 213-222
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 30, 2020

    The present paper aims to clarify the actual situation and the problems with constructors for continuous restoration in Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings, based on the examination of general problems with constructor, trends in governmental policies, and transition of restoration projects in the first selection of the districts. In addition, problem structure of constructor which derives difference of constructor population is identified by interviews at Yanai and Hita cities. In consequence, it is revealed that the municipalities with small constructor population cannot deal with its decreasing, caused by initial little population of constructors and their corporate strength.

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