In the early post-war period in Japan, the development of public housing estates began in urban areas and gradually moved to the hilly areas, which had been untouched until then, in search of a larger piece of land. However, because of the lack of safety and economic efficiency of the development techniques, there was a need for developing methods that did not involve large-scale changes in the landform. This study deciphered the design intentions of housing complexes developed in Japan in the early post-war period by focusing on the topography and choice of housing types.
The subject of this case study is Ozasa-danchi, which was developed in the 1950s on an undulating hillside area on the outskirts of the city. In the previous paper, the architectural characteristics of the star house, which was the most widely used housing form in the development of the Ozasa, are described. Based on the results of this study, we studied the details of the land development work and discussed the relationship between the landform and the residential building form.
The development of the Ozasa was carried out based on the original landform and avoided large scale land modification. As a result, the terrain after development strongly reflects the characteristics of the original landform. Also, the layout of the residential buildings in the developed area corresponded to the characteristics of the original landform.
However, this is not a compromise approach to the design to cope with the technical constraints of the development. Rather, the design of the Ozasa should be viewed as a planned activity that interlocked land development and the layout of residential buildings. Each housing building type was selected in relation to the original landform of the site, and the details of the layout were determined by the treatment of the microtopography. In addition, some residential blocks had to be modified to fit the landform, and these were planned in an integrated manner with the land development and building construction. In this way, the interrelationship of civil engineering and architectural planning in the design of the complex resulted in an organic layout plan with varied topography and various housing types.
It is necessary to implement a series of special supports from infancy to working age so that people with an illness or disability can live with dignity and have self-fulfillment.
The following three studies address the idea of reconsidering places of life/activities for people with various special needs.
[I] Understanding the needs for technical environmental arrangements
[II] Understanding the spatial composition and aspects of life/activity according to types of facilities
[III] Consideration of stay and relationship of people with various special needs based on individual surveys
This paper aims to examine studies [II] and [III] conducted at preschools and study [III] at an elementary school section of special-needs school, and refering to the construction of activity bases that includes various special needs.
The observational research was conducted at four facilities (W/X/Y/Z) for children with intellectual disabilities and an elementary school section of a special-needs school (M). At these facilities, children are provided with nursing/education that fits each special support type defined by their ability to communicate and move.
Chapter 3 looks at studies [II] and [III], which were conducted at four preschool facilities, and the following findings were obtained.
・ Even though the spatial composition is the same, usage of the space is different.
・ Differences in aspects of stay for each special support type are related to whether children can choose their place to stay.
・ It is necessary to provide support for human interactions depending on spatial composition/special support type.
Chapter 4 looks at study [III], which was conducted at an elementary school section of a special-needs school, and the following findings were obtained.
・ The stay ratio distribution is not influenced by special support type but by curriculum and furniture placement.
・ Difference that depends on special support types is not observed when they relate with "Other Children".
・ Relationship of special support types "a" and "b" are at lower percentage of "Teacher" and higher percentage of "By Oneself" in 2012 than in 2010.
Finally, in Chapter 5, cross-sectional consideration of differences and synonyms of activity patterns in preschool and school age was conducted; the following findings were obtained.
・ Even with the same space composition, the meaning of the space differs depending on operation and shape of each facility, and that becomes apparent as the way the space is used.
・ The environment and stimulus that are easily obtained/ decreased change based on special support type and spatial composition at four preschool facilities. On the other hand, the environment and stimuli are controlled by spatial transformation at school (M).
As stated above, in order to build comprehensive activity base regardless of age and type of disability at preschool and school age, it is necessary to firstly pay attention to the environment and stimuli that are received differently depending on spatial composition and special support type. In addition, since special support type affects management and nursing / education policy, it is needed to consider spatial composition together with the management policy. Furthermore, it is necessary to redesign space and activities by reexamining management and the meaning of the space according to the needs, because bases for preschool and school age children care different students every year and also their needs change each year.
Automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) have been available to the general public since 2004, and, although the number of AEDs installed per capita in Japan has reached a level not inferior to other countries, they are rarely used by the general public, but there are few use cases. Therefore, in this research, we clarified the factors that are important at the time of installation from the viewpoint of facility managers, targeting districts included the A ward of Tokyo. We also examined factors that might be important at the time of facility design in consideration of the installation of AEDs. In addition, we verified areas in which AEDs are usable in urban spaces by time of day and considered factors relevant to future installations from an urban perspective. From the series of analysis results, we observed the following related factors.
(1) AEDs are often installed in facilities used by an unspecified number of people, but there are some facilities that can only be accessed on weekdays, such as schools and banks. Furthermore, only a limited number of facilities can be used during the night and early morning.
(2) Many AEDs are installed at first-floor entrances and other installation locations that are considered easy to access for users who enter the facility. In addition, it was confirmed that some AEDs are installed outdoors, such as at a front entrance, and intended for use outside the facility.
(3) Many facilities have pointed out that AEDs cannot be accessed by the general public outside of the facility’s opening hours.
(4) Most facilities have never used their AEDs, but there are concerns about the cost of maintenance and upkeep.
(5) Facility managers consider visibility to be very important, but satisfaction with visibility is low given its importance.
(6) In order to improve the managers’ overall satisfaction with AED installation, factors such as visibility, inhibitory, and usability must be considered.
(7) The population ratio of the covered area widely, reaching 74.5% during the daytime on weekdays, decreasing significantly to 46.0% during the daytime on Saturdays and Sundays, and further decreasing to 37.5% during the night and early morning.
(8) In examining the usable range of existing AEDs, most areas had both overlapping accessible ranges and blank ranges that were outside the service area.
In this study, we were able to statistically grasp the installation status of AEDs and the needs of facility managers based on the cases examined in the research area. In addition, taking this area as an example, we were able to grasp current issues of population ratios of covered area during different times of day. From a series of surveys and analyses, it was found that when designing a facility, it is necessary to consider placement methods that do not interfere with traffic, to secure a place that is easy to see and access from the entire facility, and to consider installing the AED outdoors. When planning the installation of AEDs in the future, it is important to select facilities while taking into consideration access on Saturdays and Sundays and during the night and early morning, and it is important to selected that to install it in the facility that can be used for an extended period of time and support increases in the covered area population.
This is a study on villages, shrines and temples in Kumano City, Mie Prefecture. Aging and depopulation are problems in rural areas of Japan. The same trend applies to the Kumano area of the Kii Peninsula. Also, the Kumano area has a primitive nature worship, and it is transmitted to various places as shrines, temples, and events. However, it is expected that there will be a shortage of successors due to aging and depopulation.
This study covers two mountain villages and three ﬁshing villages in Kumano City. We interviewed the central characters of the ﬁve villages. The villages of mountain are discrete and may have sub-organizations such as "Ku" and "Kumi" to organize the villages.
In that case, we interviewed the central ﬁgure in the subordinate organization. The villages of the ﬁshing are collective, and there are multiple villages. The hearing revealed that locals were involved in shrines and temples during routine maintenance and events. Shrines and temples form a one-year cycle through regular maintenance and events. Regarding regular maintenance, some villages perform maintenance once every two weeks, while others only perform maintenance once a year. The shrine has an event about once a year, and many people in the village prepare and participate in the event. The temple has four events a year, and the people of the village do not gather but worship individually as a family. Bon events will be centered around homes where people died that year.
Shrine events are often held in collaboration with the assembly hall. There are also areas that maintain and operate events in cooperation with neighboring villages. There were also villages that had their own shrine as a subordinate organization. Blood relationships are important for temples, and land connections are important for shrines. It also revealed the existence of other religious shrines due to professional connections. In discrete mountain villages, subdivided organizations may have their own shrines and temples, which can result in double involvement for the inhabitants. Collective ﬁshing villages are likely to be shared with neighboring villages that are geographically close to each other. It was also found that maintenance and event management were simpliﬁed as a measure against aging and depopulation. Participants are less burdened by setting the assembly hall as the place for preparing events, reducing the number of maintenance sessions, relaxing maintenance rules, and simplifying ceremonies.
In this study, we clariﬁed that there are three structures related to shrines and temples according to the topographical conditions and the connections between people. Furthermore, it was clariﬁed that there are four labor-saving methods to avoid burdening the relationship between shrines and temples due to depopulation and aging. Although it is a burden, it is not appropriate to abolish shrines and temples. It is important to apply the four labor saving in a well-balanced manner while looking at the three structures of the relationship. It is important to keep the places and events of shrines and temples alive as one of the measures to maintain the status quo in the depopulated and aging areas.
Regional composition in urban planning is based on local government area. Institutional bases and real life spaces of people, in other words decided the local government area, between so-called formal regions and substantive regions. However, while urban planning focuses on the institutional and formal regions of local government area, it does not consider the history of the substantive regions, and thus does not serve as a standard for future diverse and sustainable areas. This study focuses on the formation process of modern local government from the Edo period to the Meiji period, and grasps the relationship between formal regions in line with administrative operations and substantive regions composed of historical activities. It becomes a viewpoint for reconsidering the community area in future urban regeneration. Moreover, this study provides several lines of evidence that the influence of the real region on the organization of the three formal regions (Daiku-Shoku, Rengo-Choson, Merger of town and village) in the Meiji period. The target area is present Kawagoe City, which was modernized and urbanized based on the Kawagoe-han in the Edo period. The substantive region units were the town and the village of the Kawagoe-han.
The daiku-shoku was the first formal regions in the Meiji period, but the division was bizarre character in that it did not consider the relationship between towns and villages in the Edo period. Iruma-ken separated the formal regions from the substantive regions by separating the daiku-shoku from the autonomous work of towns and villages.
In the Gun-ku-cho-son-Henseiho (Act for the alignment of local government system), the division of Rengo-choson (towns and villages) was made by reusing the Gun in the Edo period. Rengo-choson decided by the Gun organized a formal area in accordance with the merger standard whose boundary was the topography of rivers, plateaus, etc.
Merger of towns and villages with the Shisei-choson-sei (city, town and village system) expanded autonomous organizations and formed the base of the current city area. As for the merger of towns and villages, the extent of the merger was decided by combining the proposal of a merger made by the Gun with the wishes of a town or village. This is a result of reflecting the substantive regions of towns and villages (early-modern community) in the formal regions of Gun.
The size of the formal regions changed according to the administrative work at the three time points, and the area of towns and villages that accompanied the substantive regions changed according to topographical features. Rivers and county borders form the boundaries of formal regions. These boundaries are the same for the three time points of formal regions. Kaido and passages created to connect castle towns and other towns during the Edo period constitute the central space of the formal regions. A region with a contiguous boundary and a central space provides choices for the categorization of formal regions, so that the formal regions at three time points change.
As a result, it was found that the importance of the range adjusted to the standard size of the area in the three time points of formal regions in the Meiji period differed according to the substantive regions and topographical features. It suggests the possibility of deriving a new viewpoint to consider future regional units.
Population who live in food deserts are increasing in central business districts of mid-sized provincial cities. This is because of increasing number of aged residents who cannot adjust to an environment which requires long distance. In provincial areas, it is common to use cars to go anywhere and residents with difficulty in moving long distances are confronting great obstacles in daily life. Though some private companies conduct business in providing living essentials, there is no firm-framework to improving the environment by public support. As countermeasure to this, shopping on the internet or at mobile shops became popular. However, these solutions were not necessarily effective for those who have low accessibility to daily necessities. Those who have lived in city center for a long time face this problem because they could not catch up with the change in their living environment. Therefore, it is important to understand a former living environment. This study focused on city center of Matsumoto.
There are five main avenues in the commercial environment of Matsumoto city center. Based on an analysis of the function, it is found that these main avenues have existed from the time of a castle town. Along these avenues, there are shopping goods shops and they were used by the residents of the whole city. This area is named <Shopping Sphere> in this research. However, because of motorization, <Shopping Sphere> has declined, and instead, shopping malls are mainly used today. As for convenience goods, based on a study of changes in use of buildings from past to present, <Livable Sphere> supported the lives of city center residents. <Livable Sphere> is a radius of about 300m and consists of several private shops providing convenience goods to those who live in that area. The city center consists of several <Livable Spheres>. Nowadays residents use shopping malls even to get convenience goods instead of shopping in <Livable Spheres>.
In summary, it can be said that residents used to get items for their daily life within <City Sphere>, consisted of <Shopping Sphere> and <Livable Sphere>. However today, residents use shopping malls for both purposes of getting shopping and convenience goods and the potential customers of shopping malls live in whole city center. For getting shopping goods, potential users of <Shopping Sphere> originally lived in whole city center, therefore the environmental change did not affect those residents. However, as for getting convenience goods, the environmental change from <Livable Sphere> to shopping malls meant that a required distance for getting convenience goods became longer. Therefore, those who have low accessibility to shopping malls are now trapped to food desert problems.
The remnants of <Livable Sphere> can be seen in these private fresh food shops scattered around the city center. They play significant roles for supporting residents with low accessibility to shopping malls. They also provide delivery services according to the needs and selling a variety of goods. These practices were their own survival strategy at first, but as they gradually recognized the social demand, their attitudes are now oriented towards supporting food desert areas. Also, for the old customers, they can easily shop because these private shops are well-known among them. These strong connections between customers and owners is the unique characteristic of the private shops and their existence is meaningful to complement food desert areas.
Many local governments that were damaged by the tsunami caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake designated disaster hazard areas based on Article 39 of the Building Standards Act in coastal areas and restricted the construction of residential buildings. Residents who lived in the disaster hazard area were forced to move to their place of residence. In this study, we targeted households who lived in the Ogatsu district of Ishinomaki City before the earthquake and moved with the group relocation project. We selected two cases: the households that selected the Futago housing complex outside the Ogatsu and the Ogatsu Central housing complex inside the Ogatsu. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of differences in the relocation destinations and living environments of residents on their satisfaction and the feeling of reconstruction. In particular, we focused on the following three points and proceeded with the analysis; (1)the effect of convenience on satisfaction, (2)the living environment factor that affects satisfaction, (3)the effect of the distance from the sea to the choice of residence. The population of the Ogatsu district has declined the most among all the affected areas. Although there were 1,142 households in the disaster hazard area, only 192 new housing units were built. In particular, households in the former central area, which are not fishing villages, had two primary options for the group relocation project: the housing complex in the former central area or outside the Ogatsu district. Futago is the largest housing complex in the peninsula area. It is located in the city planning area, has high mobility, and is close to shops, schools, and hospitals. Ogatsu Central is located outside the city planning area, and there are no public transportation or shops. We revealed the following points;
(1) living environment affects satisfaction The factor for choosing the area of residence for households living in the Futago was that it was far from the sea and convenient to move. However, the evaluation after living was influenced by the living environment rather than convenience. Ogatsu central is inconvenient. However, since the satisfaction level was almost the same as that of the Futago, convenience does not necessarily affect the satisfaction of living.
(2) Distance from the sea affects the choice of place of residence The factors for choosing a place of residence for households living in the Ogatsu Chuo were an attachment to the place and proximity to the sea, and the "landscape" significantly affected the feeling of reconstruction and satisfaction. It is presumed that the choice of place of residence had a preference for the sea. "Distance from the sea" had the most significant influence on the selection factors of the residences living in both housing complexes, and the feeling of reconstruction and satisfaction after residence were similar. Also, there was an extreme difference in the convenience of the two housing estates, but this did not necessarily affect the choice of place of residence and satisfaction. As a result, residents who chose a location close to the sea were not much different from the highly convenient housing complex, even though it was less convenient. Residences living on a hill with a view of the sea were satisfied with the landscape, and residences inland were satisfied with the living environment.
This study clarifies the relation between expansion process of Urbanization Promotion Area (UPA) in the past and the designation of Residential Inducing Area (RIA) as recent Urban Facility Location Plan by comparative studies of 10 local cities. We analyze characteristics of the relation mentioned above, concretely aerial quantitative index and form of designated area, and discuss land use characteristics of removed area from RIA. The followings are concluded.
1) While removed area from RIA is generally larger in comparatively recent included area into UPA, the area which has been included in UPA at the first area division or in earlier revision is also removed widely in cities which have removed RIA at large scale.
2) In the process of urbanizing there are 6 types of urban expansion form, on the other, there are 4 types of urban shrinkage form in depopulating. 4 types are ‘shrinking from peripheral part’, ‘sponge’, ‘shrinking along linking axis with another city’ and ‘finger’. Urban shrinking types of urban form depends on the extent of shrinkage.
3) On the relation between removed area and location or densely inhabited district (DID), area having included in UPA at the 1st area division has different characteristic from area included in revision of area division. From the viewpoint for keeping DID or keeping balanced urban form, it is appropriate to be removed from area included in revision of area division. Regarding on land use, it proves appropriate that removied areas included lots of industrial area, roadside area and interchanges. But in the suburban area, because there are many examples including good infrastructure area with land readjustment especially in area included in revision of area division, careful verification on the appropriateness would be necessary.
4) In the city of ‘shrinking from peripheral part’ or ‘sponge’, those forms are characterized by removing problematic area to reside, like industrial area, roadside or poor infrastructure area, on site. On the other, in the city of ‘shrinking along linking axis with another city’ and ‘finger’, which remove infrastructure area widely, RIA is designated on the convenience for public transit like railway or bus service line, depending not on appropriateness of removing areas characteristics.
Because Urban Facility Location Plan seeks for city planning image in 20 years future, it is considered that some cities might set removing area widely not coinciding to actual shrinking situation. It might be natural that widely removing RIA, widely included appropriate area to reside, for example, good infrastructure area in suburban. And removing RIA widely reaches lastly at ‘finger’ formed by ‘compact plus network’ concept. But some local cities have no better public transit service network fundamentally. Therefore, the appropriateness of removing from RIA is verified carefully along each city situation.
This article aims at proposing an indicator of centrality that consider a trip generation and trip distance in cities and at clarifying its expressibility by comparison with betweenness centrality and advantage of position.
Historically cities have been recognized to have centrality. Research on the centrality of cities has been conducted for a long time, such as the central place theory by Christaller and Lösch. However, the theory assumes that the center is in a given position, and it cannot explain that a specific location is the center. On the other hand, using graph theory, we can obtain an indicator of centrality in cities by considering the road network as a network. Among them, betweenness centrality and advantage of position are mentioned as typical indicators. However, the relationship between these indicators and travel behavior, an important background of centrality, is not clear. To fill this research gap, we formulate a simple indicator that takes trip into account and clarify its expressibility by comparison between the formulated indicator and the existing ones in a virtual city with grid street networks.
The indicator, which represents the location potential, is defined as follows. People leave our homes, do some activities near their homes, and go home. The farther they are from home, the lower their probability of going by an exponential function. We assume that their numbers of trips are uniform and are proportionally allocated according to the accessibility to each destination. From the viewpoint of the destination side, the accumulated numbers of the trips can be interpreted as the location potential of urban facility and they are higher in the place where many people we can easily go. We also assume that the population density in the virtual city is uniform, and thus the trip generation quantity of each district is also uniform.
The results are as follows. In a society where long-distance trips are difficult in such cases as the car ownership rate is low or people are old, the potential tends to be uniform. In contrast, in a society where the difficulty in travel is low in such cases as the car ownership rate rises, the potential of the central place where everyone can easily go rises. If facilities for people of all ages are located in the geometrical center of the city, they can easily attract customers, but facilities for the elderly can hardly attract customers there. Furthermore, when the difficulty in travel decreases more than a certain level, the centrality of the geometrical center of the city falls and the regional difference in the centrality became smaller. The interpretation of the parameters can also express differences in location possibilities due to the order of goods and services.
The results also show that the location potential can approximate the centrality distribution of the betweenness centrality and advantage of position, by adjustment of the parameters. It is also found that the betweenness centrality is very similar to the advantage of position. The absolute values of the location potential are different from these indicators, while the magnitude relation of the relative value is similar to them. It suggests that the location potential can express various centralities according to the city size, means of transportation, and facilities for various age groups by adjusting the parameters to the actual travel behavior.
A global pandemic will occur in 2020, which will have a major impact on various lifestyles and industries. Among them, one of the major changes in the business domain is the business form that symbolizes telework. It can be mentioned that rapid changes are occurring. Some companies may have significantly reduced their office area and fundamentally reviewed the business functions of their existing offices. It suggests.
On the other hand, regarding telework, discussions have been progressing in various forms, including central government offices, in recent years, and it is thought that there was a tendency to gradually attract attention. Therefore, telework has been gradually attracting attention since before the pandemic. It was becoming more widespread, but in the pandemic, there were some companies that switched to teleworking. A gradual understanding of teleworking and a rapid practice based on the pandemic were mixed, and in the future. It is undeniable that there is no clear suggestion as to the direction in which.
Under these circumstances, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the importance of grasping the contents required for architecture, and to develop a method for grasping business characteristics on the user side while targeting office functions. Therefore, specifically, the method of clarifying the requirements for architecture while narrowing down the viewpoint to the interdependence of the components in the target user's business and ensuring the logic and objectivity as much as possible. In this way, we will discuss the direction to be taken based on the understanding of the required characteristics for architecture in the future.
It cannot be denied that the construction industry so far has promoted the supply of architecture and space based only on the conventional fixed way of thinking. It is necessary to understand what is required of architecture and space as society changes. When the changes occur, the creators who supply the architecture need to accurately recognize those changes and carry out appropriate creative activities. When social changes occur, the signs and new things It is necessary to grasp the tendency as objectively as possible and to be able to clearly indicate the request of the user as accurately as possible. Originally, it is extremely difficult for the user to accurately express his / her request by language. In addition, it is unlikely that the correct answer will be reached simply by asking the user directly. This study is a novel attempt to obtain the possibility of overcoming this situation, and the main focus point is the interdependent between the components. We tried to make clear one of the surfaces of social requirement for architectures and spaces with this discussion. In the future, it is necessary to derive more possibilities from this viewpoint and at the same time try to pursue the truth from a new viewpoint.
The authors investigated the housing estate “Tsurumaki -3” of Tama New Town in the west suburb of Tokyo. It was one of the first experimental project, named KEP (Kodan Experimental housing Project) which Japanese Housing Corporation started in 1973 in order to research and develop the flexibility and adaptability of housing. The most important object of this research is to investigate how residents have adopted the design concepts to suit their individual needs and how they have adapted their living environments to changes in their lifestyles over time by remodeling rooms and changing the position of partitions, especially that of KEP movable partitioning system. The authors found some residents renovated their units by relocating the KEP movable partitions and storage systems and some residents did not. As children grew, and as they left home, some families used the KEP system to adjust the room arrangements to fit their changing lifestyles. This study has confirmed the effectiveness of KEP in introducing movable storage walls and movable partitions in a family dwelling unit of about 90 m2, with the aim of changing the floor plan without significant financial burden or impact on life.
The English translations of the Fig.4 not shown in English in the text are as follows.
Index for Symbols:
W: toilet, washbasin, B: bathroom, K: kitchen, C: change of storage, I: repair of infill decoration, S: moving or removing of KEP movable storage wall, M: moving or removing of KEP movable partition wall, M’: renovation of conventional partition wall, P: change from Japanese room to flooring room, F: comprehensive renovation by returning the house to the state of base building, O: repair or removing of water heater, ● [red spot]: change of the user of the room, mainly the room for sleep,
Index for the color of each line:
white: first living resident, gray: second living resident, deep gray: third living resident, light gray: unknown,
★１: the unit shown in Fig. 5 (3.4.1) ★２: the unit shown in Fig. 6 (3.4.2) ★３: the unit shown in Fig. 7 (3.4.3)
★４: the unit shown in Fig. 8 (3.4.4) ★５: the unit shown in Fig. 9 (3.4.5)
The grids with ◆ represent repair or renovation done in the year. The inferred durations are represented with dotted lines when the exact years of renovation are unknown. The red dotted lines indicate the lifestyle changes, the green lines indicate the layout changes (S, M, M’), the blue lines indicate the water section changes (W, B, K), and the black lines indicate any other renovations (C, I, F, O, D) that have been done.
*Note 1: the first column represents the types of each unit.
*Note 2: the red vertical lines represent the time that repair and renovation work for the base building, such as the repair of waterproofing and repainting of exterior walls were implemented.
*Note 3: Fig.4 is based on the analysis of data obtained from the 65 units that continuously contributed this research.
In 1869, Niigata city, a port town was opened by Japan-US commercial treaty (Nichibei-syûkou-tûshou-jouyaku). On and after 1872, Kusumoto Masataka (Niigata prefectural governor) maintained the city to make clean waterways which would be suitable for an open port.
This study is on the maintenance policy of waterways in Niigata city as a port town in the Meiji era and that was following 4 aspects.
1) In 1872, Kusumoto Masataka (Niigata prefectural governor) prohibited disposal of garbage, disposal of laundry waste and mooring of broken boats in the waterways. When transporting feces and urine by ship, not only the ship but also the barrels and tubs containing the feces and urine were covered by caps or covers.
2) In response to the maintenance policy for waterways by Kusumoto Masataka (Niigata prefectural governor), it was proposed by Kenpakunin to lay a bottom gutter on the embankment of Hakusan-ura and set up a floodgate to allow water of the Shinano River to flow directly to the waterways in the city. Furthermore, although a plan was proposed to change the flow of the Hori River and drain bad water from rice fields near wetlands to the Teramachi River, it was not realized.
3) In addition, improvement of waterways in the entire city area was proposed for the following reasons. ①The roots and trunks of miscellaneous trees grow around the willows near the waterways and extend to the water's edge of the waterways, narrowing the width of the waterways. ②The water of waterways overflows during rainfall and can be footprint on the soil road.
As mentioned above, Kusumoto Masataka (Niigata prefectural governor) did not necessarily present all concrete measures for the waterway policy of the port city of Niigata during the Meiji era.
4) On the other hand, in 1873, it was required to prohibit the transportation of feces and urine by boat and to transport by land. Furthermore, those who dumped soil, debris and rubble in the waterways were punished and it was forbidden to hit stakes in waterways that would hinder the passage of ships.
We have analyzed and considered the stone processing and masonry technology around Kagoshima Castle Honmaru, and we were able to clarify the following.
Although it was not possible to confirm the masonry of the Keicho period at the beginning of the castle construction, the stones of the Keicho period were reprocessed and used during the renovation in the 3rd year of Keian and the 9th year of Genroku. It remains on the east side of Honmaru.
It is highly possible that the stone wall on the south side of the eastern side of the main enclosure, which is assumed to be the 「Honmaru Tatsumi no hou」, which is the scope of the repair in the 3rd year of Keian, described in the 『Kyu kizatsuroku』, has not been reloaded.
Regarding the 「Minaminohou Ishigaki」, which is the repair range of Kanbun 4 (1664), which is recorded in
『Kyu kizatsuroku』, a part of the range could be identified in the stone wall on the south side of the east side of Honmaru by this survey. It was possible to clarify the stone processing and masonry technology at that time.
The post-fire renovation in Genroku 9 (1696) is likely to have been reloaded, except for some areas in Keian 3 (1650) and Kanbun 4 years.
When we examine the relationship of the governing process by the Empire of Japan with their construction activities in the area under Japanese administration，it is important for us to examine the state and the role of Japanese administration office buildings. Karafuto Prefecture, commonly known as South Sakhalin, was officially established by the Empire of Japan in 1907 after the Russo-Japanese War. In this study, we focus on the headquarter buildings of the Karafuto Agency in Toyohara, presently Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin Oblast (Prefecture), Russian Federation.
The drawings included in the official documents of the Karafuto Agency owned by the Archives of Hokkaido were listed and scanned. Most of these drawings, 48 in total, have not had previous references. These drawings and documents made it possible for us to examine the overview of the headquarter buildings of the Karafuto Agency in Toyohara.
Before the conflagration in 1942, this headquarters of the Karafuto Agency consisted of several buildings: the two-storied main building (including the old wooden building, the new reinforced concrete annex, and the old reinforced concrete annex), the two-storied old wooden annex, the two-storied new wooden annex (including the new wing and the temporary wing), some storehouses, and other small buildings. The Room names or roles in these buildings were also identified by using some drawings. The construction periods of each building were roughly estimated by several drawings and documents. There is a possibility that Mr. Yasushi TAMURA, “Gishi”, chief engineer of the Karafuto Agency, planned the two-storied old wooden main building with reference to the standardized layout for the division headquarter building in the Imperial Japanese Army in the Meiji era. However, the conflagration in 1942 destroyed the two-storied old wooden main building constructed in 1907 and some small buildings.
After the conflagration in 1942, at the same site they planned a two-storied reinforced concrete new headquarter building with its basement, which was formed in an inverted m-shape. However, practically, because of the lack of Japanese governmental budget they constructed only the east part of this building: the front entrance part, one-storied north wing with the basement, two-storied main part with the basement, and two-storied east wing with the basement in 1945. There is a possibility that Mr. Yoshio KAIZUKA, “Gishi”, chief engineer of the Karafuto Agency, planned this new headquarter building with reference to the typical layout for the prefectural office buildings in Japan in the Showa era. Furthermore, there is a high possibility that the existing building, which are found out at present at the same site, is part of this new headquarter building that was planned and constructed after the conflagration.
Because some drawings for old main building of Karafuto Agency constructed in 1907, some drawings for the old annex and the new annex, and some elevation drawings for the new headquarter building were not confirmed, our confirmation of these materials is our future issue.
Banpaku-keikaku is the master plan of Expo'70 designed by Tomoya Masuda & associates. Banpaku-keikaku has following characteristics: 1) Exhibition areas and artificial lake are designed to make a total view of the site. 2)Manipulation of the topography is related to placement of exhibition areas. 3)Viewing of the Expo starts with getting a total view of the site by the transportation. 4)With these elements, Banpaku-keiakaku was designed to achieve an idea called Keikan-ka, which is making a new landscape that has a new meaning. 5)Banpaku-keikaku were designed based on usage of former site. This work is important because concepts of discernment and manipulation of the topography and Keikan-ka which are related to Masuda's thoughts are utilized. Therefore, the author has studied its ideas and characteristics on the preceding paper (2019). Based on that paper, the author aimed to reveal how they developed that ideas and characteristics on this paper. There are two important materials for this aim which are made before completion of Banpaku-keikaku. That are four drafts for Banpaku-keikaku, and examination of the two past exposition, which are Lausanne Expo'64 and Montreal Expo'67 by Tomoya Masuda & associates. The former are included in a unpublished blueprint book 『JEXPO’70 会場計画』,which is discovered by the author, the latter are included in 「万博計画［Ⅰ］」,which is a published articles of Banpaku-keikaku. The author studied these materials.
In chapter 2, the author re-draw and analyzed four drafts, which are drawn by Kunio KATO, Shigeyuki OKAZAKI, Go SHIRAI, and Takashi TANAKA. And we found following 2 points. 1)Banpaku-keikaku may be based on KATO's draft. This is because KATO’s draft has many points of similarity to Banpaku-keikaku, in particular only KATO’s draft shows usage of former site.2) Making a total view of the site are not aimed on any drafts so that Keikan-Ka do not exists at the preliminary design of Banpaku-keikaku.3) Concepts such as discernment and manipulation of the topography, and regarding usage of former site as important are not aimed on all drafts. Accordingly, these ideas do not exist at the preliminary design of Banpaku-keikaku.
In chapter 3, the author analyzed Masuda & Associate's examination of two past exposition and found following 3 points. 1)They found the defect of Lausanne Expo that is there are no areas to synthesize the expo. Masuda's plan was designed after solving that defect. 2)They found that Montreal Expo is designed after utilizing the existing topography such as Saint-Lawrence River and the island and pier of the site. Masuda's plan was designed after developing that way to achieve Keikan-ka with artificial lake and placement of the exhibition areas. 3)They examined Montreal Expo from the perspective of reading the topography.
Conclusions are as follows. 1)Discernment and manipulation of the topography does not exist in the four drafts. But Masuda & associates examined the Montreal exposition from the perspective of reading the topography. 2)The four drafts were not designed to realize an idea called Keikan-ka. And the two past expositions did not examined from the perspective of whether the expositions were designed to make the site seen as one united area like Banpaku-keikaku was. 3)Characteristics of Banpaku-Keikaku took shape after drawing the four drafts.
Friedrich Silaban’s concept of the “open veranda” is composed of references to Indonesian local houses and historical buildings, buildings from foreign countries, and modern architecture that includes the theme of social function as well as climate adaptation. However, Silaban did not explicitly state how to achieve these aspects in his discourses. Previous studies have revealed that the relationship of Silaban’s open veranda to traditional Indonesian houses and Dutch colonial houses but did not produce a chronological analysis of his design methods. This paper aims to clarify the formation processes of Silaban’s design method for creating open veranda, through an analysis of his private house projects in 1930s-1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.
In 1930s-1940s and 1957, Silaban designed terraces that covered by limited flat concrete eaves. In the early 1950s, House of R.S. Mangunsoerana with hipped roof has a front veranda connects to a living room and sitting room. In Silaban’s house (1958), front and back verandas evolved into the flanked the sitting and dining rooms, forming an axis. The hipped roof used wide eaves, added concrete shading, finally used a gable roof. In the 1960s, Silaban’s house influenced House of T.D. Pardede (1960), Wisma Yaso (1962), and Residence of Lie A Hong (1968-1969) with additional side veranda. Silaban developed surrounding veranda, L-shaped veranda, front and side verandas, and front and two back verandas. He used the gable roof, hipped roof, concrete roof, and combined roof with concrete roof or sun breaker shadings. In the 1970s, Residence of Sutjipto (1978) has a front veranda connects with the living room and back veranda on the side connected with sitting and dining rooms. The front veranda used hipped roof and concrete sun breaker shading.
As a result, Silaban’s open veranda design methods include: 1) Most of Silaban’s private houses applied a large front veranda as the main social space, adapting typical veranda in Indonesian houses; 2) Silaban combined the front veranda and back veranda or side veranda, forming various open veranda compositions; 3) Silaban integrated the verandas, interior, and exterior in the spatial composition; 4) Silaban developed the roof with wide eaves design from a hipped roof and gable roof, with wide eaves into combination of the roof with concrete roof or concrete sun breaker shading.
Beside the open veranda’s climatic control function, Silaban’s comprehensive spatial composition creates the open veranda not only as a transition space between interior and exterior but also as a main social space integrating the open interaction between the occupants and their guests in the modern Indonesian tropical houses. In conclusion, we can say that the open veranda is not only related to modern Indonesian society way of life but also related to historical continuity as an Indonesian identity.