It had already been reported that characteristics of cooked kidney beans were influenced widely by the strage conditions, and the lower the storage temperature was, tho more favorable these cooked beans. In this report, the relatioship between pectin, Mg and Ca contents in beans and the storage conditions was investigated. Beans were stored at low temp. (5±2°C) (Sample 1) or at room temp. (20-33°C) (Sample 2) for one year or at high temp. (30°C,82%RH) for 6 months (Sample 3). After storage at these conditions, these were kept at low temp. till cooking, For the preparation of cooked samples, these were boiled with a pressure cooker. 1. While the total pectin content in each sample did not significantly differ, the insoluble pectin content was the highest in Sample 3 and the lowest in Sample 1. 2. Ca and Mg contents in these samples were little different, regardless of their storage conditions. 3. In the case of boiled beans, the total and insoluble pectin contents in the cotyledon were the highest in Sample 3 and the lowest in Sample 1, and as to the insoluble pectin content, only this content in seed coat showed the same tendency and the total pectin content in seed coat was almost the same to these three samples. 4. As to Ca, it was found that Ca was dissolved into the boiling water during cooking, and this amount imigrated from beans was the highest in the case of Sample 1. However, Mg content in both boiled beans and in boiling water was little different, regardless of storage conditions.
Katsuobushi is a traditional fermented marine product in Japan. It takes half a year to make Katsuobushi from muscle of skipjack. In the processing, tha molding is included and water content of this product decreases gradually during this process. Tasty materials contained in soup-stocks extracted from Katsuobushi of various processing steps, i. e., Hadakabushi,1st,2nd,3rd and 4th moldings, were investigated. Soup-stock from Hadakabushi showed comparatively higher values in almost all of its components than those from other molded Katsuobushi. The content of 5'-IMP was higher in the soup-stock prepared from the 3rd or the 4th molded Katsuobushi than this from the 1st or the 2nd one. It was proved that Katsuobushi decome tasty and preservable food during the processing, especially in the molding process.
The effect of preparatory treatments for the cooking of fish, such as pickling, soaking in soybean paste (Miso-zuke), salting and drying, to the change of inosinic acid in fish flesh was studied. (1) During the pickling, the enzymatic degradation of inosinic acid in common mackerel flesh was partially suppressed following the decrease of pH of the flesh. (2) During the Miso-zuke, the degradation of inosinic acid in common mackerel flesh was promoted, by the phosphatase originated from soybean paste, and by the addition of Mirin (a sort of cooking wine) or Sake (rice wine) to soybean paste, to make so as to ethanol concentration in the paste to about 6%, the degradation due to soybean phosphatase was suppressed effectively, but the phosphatase activity originated from common mackerel flesh was not affected by this treatment. (3) During th salting and the drying, the enzymatic degradation of inosinic acid in horse mackerel flesh was suppressed according to the decrease of the water activity of the flesh.
Sailfish meat was cured in soy sauce with/without ginger juice and changes in hardness and protein profiles were investigated. Fish meats were dipped into soy sauce with or without ginger juice or NaCl solution for 3 days at 4°C. Hardness of the cured meats was measured after cooking of them by texturometer, and the lowest value was obtained with meat cured with mixture of soy sauce and ginger juice. The non-protein nitrogen compounds were increased by the curing in soy sauce with ginger juice. The SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns showed that only the myosin heavy chain and actin of fish muscle cured in ginger juice added soy sauce decomposed to fragments with smaller molecular size during curing and this effect was disappeared by the cooking of ginger juice. These results suggest that the degradation of proteins by ginger proteases would be one of the factors to make meat tender during the curing.
Eleven kinds of dry meat products on the market were analyzed and the results obtained ware as follows; 1. Water content was about 10-20%. 2. Total lipids were 30-45% in salami, and less than 10% in dried meat, about 90% of these lipids were non polar one. 3. In all samples, the main fatty acid compositions of total lipids were C14: 0, C16: 0, C16: 1, C18: 0, C18: 1, C18: 2, and C18: 1 was dominant. 4. The highest PV was 51 (porkjurkey, packed in bag), and the lowest was 4(porkjurkey, canned). The highest AV was 29, and the lowest was 4. On the whole, AV was very high. 5. Lipid oxidation in dried meat products was influenced by the addition of antioxidant and the condition of packaging.
Color combination is an important factor in choosing a dish when served on a plate. A survey on preference of food color combination was undertaken with 7colored agar-agar jellies to special age groups composed only men. Results obtained were as follows: 1. The combination of red and orange colors was preferred by all age groups. 2. Boys of 6 years old preferred the combination including red or black; men of 20 years old, this of white, orange or yellow; men of 40-60 years old, also this of orange, green or white. 3. By all accounts, the dominant color for 6 years old boys would be red, whereas this for men of 40-60 years old would be white. 4. The kinds of foods, especially in cases of vegetables and fruits, imaged from the color of jellies were almost common to all age groups.
Brown rice grains were stored at room temperature for one and two years and these grains were milled to 92% of original weight (92% rice) and, for the latter grains, not only 92% but also 60% and 80% milled rites (60% rice and 80% rice)were prepared. While the water absorption of 92% rites was slow and low, in case of 60% and 80% rices, it bacame rapid and high and was similar to that of 92% rice of the newly harvested one. Fat acidity of 92% rices increased with storage, but this value of 60% and 80% rices was lower than that of the 92% rice of the non-stored one. No marked difference was observed in weight ratio of cooked to raw rice grains among test samples. Elongation ratio of cooked rice grains decreased with storage, and this value of 60% rice showed the lowest one. In th case of cooked rice grains from stored rices, pH value was low and dehydration ratio by heating with infrared lamp was rapid as compared with the case of non-stored rice grains. Also as to the dehydration ratio of the newly ha vested rice, the longer the soaking period, the slower this ratio was. When the milling ratio was the same (92%), the hardness of cooked rice grains increased with storage, but this value of 60% and 80% rices was almost the same to the value of non-stored rice. Contrary to this, stickiness of cooked rice grains decreased with storage. It was confirmed that, even though the long period stored rice, by the polishing to 80%, the sensory score elevated to the same level as that of the non-stored polished rice.
Chemical forms of iron in brown sugars were studied. The iron content in brown sugar was relatively high among samples tested and most of it was present as water soluble form. The amount of ferrous iron in the sugars varied following samples. The brown sugar with high reducing power showed high luminosity. Soluble iron in breakfast cereal products consisted mainly of ionic iron. Each products contained 10-20 ppm of ferrous iron. As to ferric pyrophosphate fortified cookies, there was little difference in the chemical forms of iron between cookies made of brown sugar and that of usual white sugar. These results indicate that the existence of ferrous iron in brown sugar, breakfast cereal products and cookies was attributable to the reducing power which would be produced by the browning reaction of food components.
The quality of 124 samples of “Ita-Konnyaku”(Block Type Konnyaku)obtained commercially in 7 districts of eastern and western regions of Japan were compared in terms of physical properties, pH and contents of solid matter, konnyaku mannan (KM) and minerals to clarffy the regional differences. 1) The shearing strength of heated konnyaku is significantly larger in konnyaku of western Japan than that of easten samples. The shearing strength of raw konnyaku and the effect of heating on konnyaku are larger in konnyaku of western Japan than in that of eastern Japan. All over Japan, a significant correlation is observed between KM content and shearing strength; the higher the KM content, the larger the shearing strength of konnyaku is. 2) The weight of a piece of konnyaku of eastern Japan on the market is significantly large, whereas the solid matter content significantly higher in konnyaku of western Japan. However, the price per KM 100g is higher in konnyaku of eastern Japan. 3) The contents of ash, calcium and sodium, and pH are significantly higher in konnyaku of western Japan. A significant correlation is observed between KM content and ash content; the higher KM content, the higher the ash content. 4) It seems that the konnyaku of northern Japan is softer, and that of western is harder.
The application of naringinase for the removal of bitter substances in peel of Banpeiyu (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was investigated. Albedo and f lavedo of the peel were each other separated, and the effectiveness of three removal methods, namely, soaking in 0.1 % naringinase solution, soaking in 1 % HCl and boiling, was compared. Naringin and limonin were determined by HPLC method. It was found that the naringin content was the highest in the albedo and flavedo of boiled samples, and contrary to this, this of HCl treated samples was the lowest. As to limonin, samples obtained by the treatment of naginginase showed the highest content and this content of boiled samples was the lowest. As the result of the sensory evaluation, it became clear that the peel treated with naringinase was the most bitter of those treated by these three methods.
To know the effect of salt on qualities of butter cookies, samples were prepared using salted butter and saltless butter. Seize, weight, volume, hardness and fracturability of the samples were investiged. Taste tests were also carried out. As the results, followings were found; salt in butter inhibits slightly the evaporation of water during baking, there is no significant difference about rising of the dough and volume of the products, hardness and fracturability by texturometer increased in proportion to salt involved but butter proportion effect larger on texture of cookies than salt. It was concluded that saltless butter is preferable to make high butter level cookies to avoit too much salty and if a portion of saltless butter is substituted by salted one, taste of the products will become more acceptable.
To check a thermal oxidative deterioration of frying oils, three rapid simplified testing methods on the market were comparatively practiced. Twenty one of frying oils in use were collected from many families and analyzed on peroxide, acid iodine, carbonyl and anisidine values and also, conjugated diene content and Rovibond color, and at the same time, by 3 simplified tests (POV test paper, free fatty acid tester and Fritest(R)). As a result, Fritest relatively expressed the degree of thermal oxidative deterioration, which was evaluated by other characteristic figures of frying oils.