Endocrine Journal
Online ISSN : 1348-4540
Print ISSN : 0918-8959
ISSN-L : 0918-8959
Volume 71, Issue 5
Displaying 1-12 of 12 articles from this issue
ESSAY | TOWARD JES 100TH ANNIVERSARY
STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
  • Hiroshi Sakai, Yuuki Imai
    Article type: State-of-the-Art Review in Endocrinology
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 437-445
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 27, 2024
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    Androgens play a vital role not only in promoting the development of male sexual characteristics but also in exerting diverse physiological effects, including the regulation of skeletal muscle growth and function. Given that the effects of androgens are mediated through androgen receptor (AR) binding, an understanding of AR functionality is crucial for comprehending the mechanisms of androgen action on skeletal muscles. Drawing from insights gained using conditional knockout mouse models facilitated by Cre/loxP technology, we review the cell-specific functions of AR in skeletal muscles. We focus on three specific cell populations expressing AR within skeletal muscles: skeletal muscle cells, responsible for muscle contraction; satellite cells, which are essential stem cells contributing to the growth and regeneration of skeletal muscles; and mesenchymal progenitors, situated in interstitial areas and playing a crucial role in muscle homeostasis. Furthermore, the indirect effects of androgens on skeletal muscle through extra-muscle tissue are essential, especially for the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The regulation of genes by AR varies across different cell types and contexts, including homeostasis, regeneration and hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. The varied mechanisms orchestrated by AR collectively influence the physiology of skeletal muscles.

    Editor's pick

    It is widely recognized that androgens play a crucial role not only in developing secondary sexual characteristics in men but in exerting protein anabolic effects as anabolic steroids. In this issue, Professor Yuuki Imai and Dr. Hiroshi Sakai contribute a sophisticated and insightful review on cell-specific functions of androgen receptor within skeletal muscles, particularly in satellite cells, myofibers and mesenchymal progenitors. A variety of indirect effects of androgens via extra-muscle tissue on skeletal muscle are also impressively highlighted.

ORIGINAL
  • Takashi Suzuki, Makoto Kurano, Akari Isono, Takuya Uchino, Yohei Sayam ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 447-460
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 09, 2024
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    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a pathological condition caused by genetic factors alone or in combination with environmental factors, sometimes leading to acute pancreatitis (AP). In this study, exome sequencing and biochemical analyses were performed in 4 patients with hypertriglyceridemia complicated by obesity or diabetes with a history of AP or decreased post-heparin LPL mass. In a patient with a history of AP, SNP rs199953320 resulting in LMF1 nonsense mutation and APOE rs7412 causing apolipoprotein E2 were both found in heterozygous form. Three patients were homozygous for APOA5 rs2075291, and one was heterozygous. ELISA and Western blot analysis of the serum revealed the existence of apolipoprotein A-V in the lipoprotein-free fraction regardless of the presence or absence of rs2075291; furthermore, the molecular weight of apolipoprotein A-V was different depending on the class of lipoprotein or lipoprotein-free fraction. Lipidomics analysis showed increased serum levels of sphingomyelin and many classes of glycerophospholipid; however, when individual patients were compared, the degree of increase in each class of phospholipid among cases did not coincide with the increases seen in total cholesterol and triglycerides. Moreover, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelin levels tended to be higher in patients who experienced AP than those who did not, suggesting that these phospholipids may contribute to the onset of AP. In summary, this study revealed a new disease-causing gene mutation in LMF1, confirmed an association between overlapping of multiple gene mutations and severe hypertriglyceridemia, and suggested that some classes of phospholipid may be involved in the pathogenesis of AP.

  • Kazuki Nakai, Yuya Tsurutani, Koki Irie, Kyoko Teruyama, Sachiko Suema ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 461-469
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2024
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    Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was routinely measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA); however, the RIA kit was discontinued in March 2021 in Japan. This study examined PAC conversion in adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and AVS criteria when measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). PAC of 415 adrenal venous blood samples from AVS (including segmental AVS) of 63 patients with primary aldosteronism was measured using RIA (Spac-S aldosterone kit; Fujirebio Inc.) and CLEIA (Lumipulse Presto Aldosterone; Fujirebio Inc.). PAC of 70 AVS samples was also measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, ASKA Pharma Medical Co., Ltd.). PAC conversion formulas were determined for each AVS sample assay. PAC measured using CLEIA was significantly correlated with that measured using RIA (correlation coefficient = 0.971). The PAC conversion formula was PAC (CLEIA) = PAC (RIA) × 0.772 – 1,199 pg/mL. The PAC of 14,000 pg/mL in RIA was equivalent to 9,613 pg/mL in CLEIA. PAC measured using CLEIA was also correlated with that measured using LC-MS/MS, and the PAC conversion formula was PAC (CLEIA, pg/mL) = 0.97 × PAC (LC-MS/MS, pg/mL) + 211. The inter-assay coefficient of variability (CV) was 1.1–1.3% and intra-assay CV was 1.0–1.7%, measured using CLEIA. The PAC conversion formula for AVS samples was obtained using CLEIA and RIA, and the conversion formula was different from that for peripheral blood. PAC values measured by CLEIA showed preferable accuracy and high concordance with those measured by LC-MS/MS, even in AVS samples. The study outcomes are useful for interpreting AVS results using non-RIA measurement methods.

  • Nao Shibata, Chikahiko Numakura, Takashi Hamajima, Kenichi Miyako, Iku ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 471-480
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2024
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    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can occur as an isolated deficiency or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Unlike primary CH, central CH cannot be detected by newborn screening (NBS) using dry filter paper blood TSH levels, and early diagnosis remains challenging. In this study, the clinical and genetic backgrounds of patients with isolated central CH were determined through a questionnaire-based survey among members of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology. The known causes of isolated central CH were studied in 14 patients, including six with previously reported patient data. The results revealed IGSF1 and TBL1X pathogenic variants in nine and one patient, respectively. All six patients with low free thyroxine (FT4) levels detected in NBS carried IGSF1 pathogenic variants. Five patients with isolated central CH diagnosed after 3 months of age were variant-negative, except for one female patient with a heterozygous IGSF1 variant. Two of the four variant-negative patients and a variant-positive patient were diagnosed with pituitary hypoplasia. One and two patients with IGSF1 variant had obesity and intellectual disability, respectively. Left amblyopia was identified in the patient with a TBL1X variant. The study revalidated that IGSF1 variants comprise the most frequent pathogenic variant in patients with isolated central CH in Japan. The neonatal period is the optimal time for the diagnosis of central CH, particularly IGSF1 abnormalities, and the introduction of T4 screening should be considered in the future, taking cost-effectiveness into consideration.

  • Yuichiro Iwamoto, Tomohiko Kimura, Takashi Itoh, Shigehito Mori, Taku ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 481-488
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 07, 2024
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    Acute necrotizing esophagitis (ANE) is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While its association with DKA is established, specific clinical characteristics that predict ANE in DKA patients remain less understood. This study aimed to identify these characteristics by analyzing data from 30 DKA patients admitted from January 2018 to September 2022. Seven patients in this study presented with ANE, forming the ANE group. The remaining 23 constituted the non-ANE group. We compared the clinical parameters and computed tomography (CT) between the groups. The mean age of participants was 57.7 ± 20.4 years, and their mean HbA1c was 11.1 ± 3.3%. Notably, ethanol intake was significantly higher in the ANE group (44.4 ± 25.4 g/day) compared to the non-ANE group (6.8 ± 14.0 g/day; p = 0.013). Additionally, sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitor use was significantly more prevalent in the ANE group (p = 0.013). Gastrointestinal symptoms were also significantly more pronounced in the ANE group, with vomiting occurring in 85.7% of patients compared to only 13.0% in the non-ANE group. Admission CT scans revealed further distinguishing features, with the ANE group showing significantly higher rates of esophageal wall thickening, intra-esophageal effusion, and calcification of the celiac artery origin (p < 0.0001, 0.0038, 0.0038, respectively). In conclusion, our study suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and strong gastrointestinal symptoms in DKA patients warrant a heightened suspicion of ANE. Early consideration of CT or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is recommended in such cases.

  • Eriko Nakano, Kosuke Mukai, Atsunori Fukuhara, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 489-497
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 14, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism (PA) is often regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in addition to its autonomous secretion. However, the clinical characteristics and risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular (CCV) events in PA patients with aldosterone responsiveness to ACTH stimulation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CCV events in PA patients with high aldosterone responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the Japan Primary Aldosteronism Study/Japan Rare Intractable Adrenal Disease project. PA patients with adrenal venous sampling (AVS) between January 2006 and March 2019 were enrolled. The ACTH-stimulated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of the inferior vena cava during AVS was used to evaluate aldosterone responsiveness to ACTH. We analyzed the relationship between responsiveness and previous CCV events. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the ΔPAC (the difference between the PAC measurements before and after ACTH stimulation) significantly increased the odds of previous CCV events in PA patients after adjusting for classical CCV event risk factors, baseline PAC and duration of hypertension (relative PAC: odds ratio [OR], 2.896; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.989–8.482; ΔPAC: OR, 2.344; 95% CI, 1.149–4.780; ACTH-stimulated PAC: OR, 2.098; 95% CI, 0.694–6.339). This study clearly demonstrated that aldosterone responsiveness to ACTH is closely related to previous CCV events. The responsiveness of the PAC to ACTH could be useful in predicting CCV event risk.

    Registration Number in UMIN-CTR is UMIN000032525.

  • Katsunori Manaka, Sayaka Kato, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Hajime Yamakage, Tsug ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 499-514
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 09, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    We investigated the impact of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the management of endocrine and metabolic disorders in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire survey targeting board-certified endocrinologists under the auspices of the Japan Endocrine Society. The questionnaire consisted of multiple-choice questions and open-ended responses. Out of approximately 2,700 specialists, 528 (19.5%) opted to participate, suggesting a high level of interest in COVID-19 management among endocrinologists. The study found that almost half of participants had encountered cases of endocrine and metabolic disorders following COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Conditions related to thyroid diseases, glucose metabolism disorders/diabetes, and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders were particularly prevalent. Diabetes and obesity were identified as having high rates of severe cases or fatalities due to COVID-19. The study also highlighted challenges in routine diagnosis and treatment, emphasizing the potential benefits of combining remote consultations with in-person visits to optimize the frequency of examinations and check-ups during infectious disease outbreak which disrupts access to healthcare providers. The insights obtained from this survey are expected to contribute to ensuring appropriate healthcare provision for patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders by using flexible consultation formats, particularly even in the conditions where medical access may be limited due to future outbreaks of emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases.

  • Ayana Yamagami, Shintaro Iwama, Tomoko Kobayashi, Xin Zhou, Yoshinori ...
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 515-526
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2024
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    Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and/or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) positivity at baseline is a risk marker for thyroid immune-related adverse events (thyroid-irAEs) in anti-programmed cell death-1 antibody (PD-1-Ab) treatment; however, it is unknown if TgAb and TPOAb titers are associated with clinical characteristics of thyroid-irAEs. Among 586 patients treated with PD-1-Ab at Nagoya University Hospital between 2 November 2015 and 30 September 2021, 57 patients developed thyroid-irAEs (thyrotoxicosis [n = 38]; hypothyroidism without prior thyrotoxicosis {isolated hypothyroidism} [n = 19]) in whom thyroid function, and TgAb and TPOAb titers were determined at baseline and at the onset. The changes in TgAb (median, 54.8 vs. 0.2 IU/mL; p = 0.002) and TPOAb titers (31.6 vs. 0 IU/mL; p = 0.032) from baseline to onset of developing thyroid-irAEs were greater in patients with thyrotoxicosis than patients with isolated hypothyroidism. Higher TgAb and TPOAb titers, and the TgAb titer at baseline were associated with an earlier onset of thyrotoxicosis and higher peak free thyroxine levels, respectively. Twenty-eight patients who developed hypothyroidism after thyrotoxicosis had higher TgAb (54.5 vs. 10.7 IU/mL; p = 0.011) and TPOAb titers at baseline (46.1 vs. 9.0 IU/mL; p < 0.001) and greater changes in TgAb (61.7 vs. 7.8 IU/mL; p = 0.025) and TPOAb titers (52.8 vs. –0.8 IU/mL; p < 0.001) than patients who did not develop hypothyroidism. The TgAb titer at baseline and changes in the TgAb and TPOAb titers were greater in patients with thyrotoxicosis than patients with isolated hypothyroidism, suggesting that the magnitude of the thyroid autoimmune response reflects the clinical types of thyroid-irAEs.

  • Xiaojuan Li, Luming Qiao, Wei Wang, Ying Shi, Lei Yuan, Zhiwei Zhai
    Article type: Original
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 527-536
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Obesity is affecting global health with multiple complications, including cardiac dysfunction. Currently, it is uncertain whether drug therapy should be applied in the early stages of obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction, with weight reduction as the first choice. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been widely used to treat obesity and its complications, showing promising results. However, it remains unclear whether SG can alleviate obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction. A sudden decline in body weight and food intake was observed in both the obese and obese + SG groups, with a higher rate of increase observed in the Obese group. Elevated levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and glycated haemoglobin in obese rats were significantly reduced by SG. Markedly increased levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, elevated values of heart rate, left ventricular end-systolic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, and end diastolic pressure, and decreased value of stroke volume were observed in obese rats, which were sharply reversed by SG. Furthermore, enhanced pathological changes, including inflammatory cell infiltration and loss of cytoplasm striations, enhanced oil red O staining, increased TUNEL-positive cells, upregulated Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, and downregulated Bcl-2, were observed in obese rats, which were notably alleviated by SG. Lastly, the increased levels of relative proteins observed in obese rats were significantly reduced by SG. In conclusion, SG improved cardiac function and glucose-lipid metabolism disorders in obese rats induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet.

CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  • Le Jiang, Dongmei Li, Qiansha Guo, Yunfeng Li, Lei Zan, Rihan Ao
    Article type: Case Report with Review of Literature
    2024 Volume 71 Issue 5 Pages 537-542
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 19, 2024
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    Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare, inherited salt-losing renal tubular disorder characterized by secondary hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and low-to-normal blood pressure. Classic BS, or BS Type 3, the most common subtype in the Asian population, is caused by a molecular defect in ClC-Kb, a voltage-gated chloride channel in renal tubules, due to CLCNKB gene mutation. Because the onset of BS is more common in children than in adults, the diagnosis, treatment outcomes, genotype/phenotype association, and follow-up of adult-onset BS Type 3 are limited. This case report describes the findings in a 20-year-old man who was admitted with hypokalemic paralysis, with clinical manifestations were similar to those of Gitelman syndrome (GS); however, the patient was later diagnosed to have BS Type 3 through genetic testing (NM_000085.4 (CLCNKB): c.1052G>T). A literature review showed that no homozygous mutations have been reported to date. After 5 years of treatment and follow-up, we found that this genotype requires high levels of potassium and is prone to urinary protein and metabolic syndrome. Distinguishing adult-onset BS from GS is challenging in clinical practice. However, genetic diagnosis can help solve this problem effectively, and genotypes play a guiding role in treatment planning.

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