Since nonhuman primates are closely related to humans and share many physical similarities, they are important for use in research areas such as human infectious diseases, reproduction, physiology, endocrinology, metabolism, neurology and longevity. To develop and maintain these animals, we must establish techniques for in vitro manipulation of spermatozoa and eggs. For a decade my research group has been conducting basic research to establish embryo manipulation techniques and to clarify the reproductive phenomena in nonhuman primates. This article summarizes the past research on in vitro manipulation of nonhuman primate gametes, from collection of reproductive cells and in vitro fertilization to the birth of offspring after embryo transfer, as well as the current status of these research areas. The studies summarized here will directly lead to the development of standard techniques for practical and comprehensive use in nonhuman primates.
We discovered two mouse strains (SMXA-5 and SMXA-9) with hyperinsulinemia among the substrains and progenitor strains (SM/J and A/J) of the SMXA recombinant inbred (RI) strains, and characterized the two strains at 20 weeks of age. SMXA-5 (mean ± S.E.M: 9.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml) and SMXA-9 (7.7 ± 1.3 ng/ml) males had higher serum immunoreactive insulin levels than SM/J (1.4 ± 0.3 ng/ml) and A/J (1.1 ± 0.1 ng/ml) males in the nonfasting condition. The hypoglycemic response to insulin at 30 min after injection was significantly less in SMXA-5 males than in SM/J mice. Glucose tolerance test revealed that the incidence of impaired glucose tolerant males was 58% (11/19) in SMXA-5 and 42% (10/24) in SMXA-9 strains, but none in SM/J and A/J strains. SMXA-5 (209 ± 29 mg/dl) and SMXA-9 (235 ± 31 mg/dl) had higher serum triglyceride levels than SM/J (126 ± 14 mg/dl) and A/J (89 ± 5 mg/dl) males in the nonfasting condition. Histologic examination revealed enlarged islets in the pancreas of hyperinsulinemic SMXA-5 male mice. Moreover, SMXA-5 and SMXA-9 mice exhibited mild obesity. SMXA-5 and SMXA-9 males were therefore characterized by hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and mild obesity which resembled some of the phenotypes of human Syndrome X, although both progenitor strains were normal so far as we examined. Since the RI strains are a powerful tool to facilitate polygenic-trait analysis, SMXA-5 and SMXA-9 mice will be useful materials to investigate the genetic basis of complex diseases, and are possible new metabolic models in relation to hyperinsulinemia.
Liver biopsy based on a partial hepatectomy technique (shearing) was performed in 10 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). This is a preliminary study to evaluate the effects of drugs on hepatic microsomal enzymes: cytochrome P-450 and T4 uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (T4-UDPGT), by comparing post-treatment values with pre-treatment values individually with a limited number of animals. The effects of the biopsy on clinical findings and liver pathology were evaluated during the first 5 post-surgical weeks. Although the plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities tended to decrease from 1 to 4 weeks post-surgery, no abnormality was noted in clinical sign, body weight, the hematocrit value or other blood chemical values. At necropsy, adhesion of the sheared site of the liver to the parietal peritoneum or the small intestine was evident in 2 of the 4 marmosets. Microscopic examination revealed focal fibrosis in the liver, but it was localized around the sheared site. Based on the above results, it was concluded that liver biopsy must be performed more than one month before administration of the drug to be tested. The biopsy samples and the whole liver samples obtained at autopsy were subjected to analysis of microsomal protein content, cytochrome P-450 content and T4-UDPGT activity. In comparison with the values from the whole liver samples, those from the biopsy samples showed no significant difference. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation rather than difference between matched values. This suggested that partial hepatectomy is a useful method for obtaining pretreatment values in liver biochemistry to evaluate the effects of drug-treatment in individual animals.
In order to effectively use cynomolgus monkeys as animal models for human diseases, more than 300 anti-human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were studied as to their cross-reaction with various antigens from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Two hundred twenty-nine of 339 (67.55%) anti-human mAbs that react with human antigens of CD-defined molecules, chemokine receptors, and T cell receptors were cross-reactive with the monkey antigens. Using the cross-reactive antibodies and the fluorescenced beads for calibration, the procedure for the absolute count of monkey lymphocyte subsets was developed and the mean values for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood were 718 and 573/mm3, respectively. Moreover, intracellular cytokines, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNγ, and intracellular apoptosis-related proteins, Bcl-2, FADD and active form of caspase-3 could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as various tissue cells. It is therefore practicable to detail the phenotype of leukocytes, assess the production of intracellular cytokines and enumerate T-lymphocyte subsets by using the cross-reactive human antibodies with respective antigens of cynomolgus monkeys.
The present study is designed to investigate the time-dependent effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on the baroreflex arterial pressure (AP) control system in rabbits. The overall AP control capacity of the baroreflex system was assessed with mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to the rapid mild hemorrhage (2 ml/kg body weight) and an overall open-loop gain (G) of the system. The G value was determined by means of the following formula: G=ΔAP I/ΔAPS-1, where ΔAP I is an immediate MAP fall and ΔAPS a steady-state fall after the rapid hemorrhage. Prior to the experiment, two catheters for AP measurement and hemorrhage were chronically in-dwelt in the aortic arch via the left subclavian and left common carotid arteries, respectively. Control mean arterial pressure averaged for 30 sec before the rapid hemorrhage (CMAP), ΔAP I and ΔAPS significantly increased and reached the maximal value at 14 min (CAMP: p<0.01) and 28 min (ΔAPI: p<0.01 and ΔAP S: p<0.01) after the intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital in a 25.0 mg/kg dose, respectively. These values gradually decreased in the course of time and tended to recover to near the preanesthetic level at 77-98 min after the anesthesia. The G value significantly decreased from 7.3 in the conscious state to 1.5 at 28 min after the anesthesia (p<0.001), gradually increased with lapse of time and recovered to near the preanesthetic level at 77-98 min after the anesthesia. No significant difference in G was observed between in the conscious and anesthetized states beyond 70 min after the anesthesia (p>0.05). These findings suggest that pentobarbital sodium exerts a time-dependent inhibitory effect on the baroreflex system but does not significantly affect the overall AP control capacity of the baroreflex system itself at least 70 min after the intravenous administration at a dose of 25.0 mg/kg.
In this study we combined three major rat genome maps, by adding 66 markers to the Kyoto Laboratory Animal Science map (KLAS map), and constructed an integrated map. The resultant integrated map consists of 5,682 redundant markers, spanning a genetic length of 2,028 cM. Eighty genetic markers were anchored to the cytogenetic map, fixing all the genetic maps in the physically correct orientation. This map encapsulates the progress in rat mapping studies in past years and offers useful information for QTL analysis. The map figures are available at http://www.anim.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp/.
Spontaneous cutaneous mastocytomas in Djungarian hamsters (D-hamster) were pathologically studied and compared with those in canine and feline cases. Eight (9.3%) of 86 cutaneous biopsy cases in D-hamsters were diagnosed as mastocytomas, being slightly higher in incidence than in canine and feline species. In 4 of 8 D-hamster cases, the tumor lesions were in the head and neck in contrast to most canine lesions in the extremities. The histopathology of the D-hamster mastocytoma was characterized by diffuse or massive proliferation of well-differentiated tumor cells with severe degeneration of collagen fibers and slight eosinophil infiltration in most cases.
A spontaneous morphological mutation characterized by a short and kinky tail (Tail-short Shionogi: Tss) was observed in a BALB/cMs mouse breeding colony. The inheritance mode of the Tss mutation is semi-dominant, and homozygotes (Tss/Tss) are probably embryonic lethal. The viability of the Tss/+ heterozygotes appear to be influenced by the mating partner: 47.1% of the (BALB/cMs-Tss/+ × C57BL/6J)F1 embryos were the mutant phenotype, whereas there were no (BALB/cMs-Tss/+ × A/J)F1 embryos with the mutant phenotype. The Tss locus was mapped by linkage analysis between microsatellite markers D11Mit128 and D11Mit256 on mouse Chromosome 11. These results suggest that the Tss mutation is a new allele on the Tail-short (Ts) locus.
The rat dominant hairless gene (Ht) of the WBN/Ila-Ht rat causes atrichosis in Ht/Ht and hypotrichosis in Ht/+. Furthermore the Ht/Ht shows signs of abnormal keratinization and almost all of the Ht/Ht die in an immature stage before weaning in the conventional environment. Ht/+ was affected by dermatitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that the gene Ht might involve defense mechanisms against infection. In this study, we performed the linkage analysis of the gene Ht by outocross with the Brown Norway rat in the SPF environment. Ninety-six backcross progeny of (BN × WBN/Ila-Ht/Ht) F1 × WBN/Ila-Ht/Ht were typed with microsatellite markers and the gene Ht was mapped on chromosome 10 between Asgr1 and Nos2 within the map distance of 6.2 cM.
Important parameters to identify and develop appropriate animal models for longevity science include survivability, age-related disorders, and easy handling of aged individuals. It is found that F334/Du and F344/N have distinctive strain difference in these parameters. The finding suggests F334/Du and F344/N, even though they are historically siblings, need clearly separate identification when used as animal models for aging science, in particular, longevity science.
A comparative histologic survey was conducted on the dorsal root, sciatic, tibial and medial plantar nerves of 90- and 110-week-old B6C3F1 female mice reared in either solid-floor cages covered in sawdust or wire-mesh-floor cages. Age-related peripheral nerve lesions, characterized by axonal degeneration and remyelination, were present in all nerves surveyed, and were especially prominent in the sciatic and medial plantar nerves at 110 weeks of age but, there were no differences associated with the type of cage floor in clinical signs, grasping power of the fore- and hind-limbs, motor nerve conduction velocity or histopathologic findings at these ages.