In the current rapid urbanization view of most countries in the world, it is important to pay attention to legislation and policy development, the improvement of adequate infrastructure and basic services, urban planning and design. This will create an inclusive, tough, prosperous economic environment and maximize the benefits of agglomeration. Sustainable urban rural development remains one of the most pressing global challenges of the twenty-first century. Central and local governments and their partners should pay greater attention to one another and work together to build on a more harmonious, fair, inclusive and environmentally sustainable planned environment at the urban-rural scale. According to the UN-HABITAT Global Activity Report 2015, the world has experienced rapid urbanization. In 2008, the urban population exceeded the rural population. By 2050, it is expected that two thirds of the world's population will live in urban areas. With more than half of humanity living in cities, it is estimated that urban areas account for 70% of the world's gross domestic product and therefore have led to economic growth and prosperity (UN-HABITAT, 2015).
Provision of green open spaces by 30% of urban areas as outlined in Law 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning, is the responsibility of local governments. Malang City Government is currently in the process of realizing open space according to the provisions of the law. Due to funding constraints, local governments involve the private sector through the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in the provision of green open spaces. This study examines the potential and problems of private sector involvement in urban development processes, especially the provision of urban open spaces. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of private sector involvement policy. This study was conducted by using descriptive analysis to describe the phenomenon of CSR implementation for urban open space revitalization program. This study uses qualitative analysis of implementation data of Green Open Space (GOS) revitalization through CSR program. This study emphasizes the position and role of CSR in the city's GOS revitalization program to formulate a model of private sector involvement policy in the provision of green space. The model consists of a process of negotiation, planning, implementation and open maintenance. The result of this research is the scheme of private sector financial involvement process and the approval of detail engineering design (DED).
This study attempts to develop a methodology to help discover and evaluate the potential of unused urban spaces at the local level, and put it into practice. Through the application of the method, the conceptual framework of unused urban spaces with physical and functional aspects, across natural and acquired origins of formation, is further confirmed, developed and improved. More importantly, this study aims not only to develop a method of identifying the local unused space and its development potential in practice, but also to provide the capability of assessing the quality and uniqueness of such space.
The main objective of this paper is to explore the cluster dynamics and external linkages of the Istanbul film industry through a questionnaire-based study with film producers. The paper aims to determine whether the success in the global market is created through the cluster dynamics of the local film industry. The status of Istanbul’s integration into the global market can be shown by the activities of the film industry. Clustering and local-global interactions are the main points of analysis as they are the major factors indicating integration of film clusters into global film markets. The findings show that the Istanbul film industry cluster tends towards disintegration spatially and has weak external linkages. For sustainable development and resilience against potential future crises, local-global interactions and external linkages should be integrated into the existing cluster dynamics. Consequently, this study asserts that despite the position of Istanbul on the periphery of the global economic system, through the film sector as a creative industry, its position and degree of global integration can be increased.
The local government of Semarang City has made an effort to preserve all of its historic assets to sustain the local value of the city and has registered for the city to become a World Heritage Site. It has invited local people to participate in these conservation activities. The impetus for this has come from the degradation of Old Town, especially due to the disregard for the preservation of old buildings as they are transitioned into commercial use, where the old facades have not been maintained. This research discusses the management of Old Town through the optimisation of the role that the GeMaSPeKoLa plays and finds suitable strategies for increasing public participation in conservation. Using a descriptive method, the research details the role of the GeMaSPeKoLa as a social community movement concerned with the preservation of Old Town. This kind of social forum strengthens the local public’s participation in the preservation activities and helps to prepare Old Town for becoming a World Heritage Site. Through observation and in depth interviews, the role of the GeMaSPeKoLa in reducing the problems facing preservation are explored. This research builds a strategy to optimise the role of the GeMaSPeKoLa in the preservation activities supporting Old Town becoming World Heritage listed.
Recently, self-wedding photographs have become popular among soon-to-be married couples, affecting tourism and industry in Jeju Island. From the research on three sites, St. Isidore Farm, Camellia Hill and Saryeoni Forest Trail, this article argues that photographers and self-wedding photographing tourists' role can be important in attracting new visitors by sharing photos through social networking sites. Using a mixed-methods approach - including analysing Instagram photo postings, on-site interviews with managers of the destinations and self-wedding photographers, and questionnaires with self wedding photographing tourists - this study examines the process of discovering new sightseeing places by tourists through self-wedding photographs. The paper also identifies the characteristics of the photogenic spots and records the changes in places caused by these tourists. This paper challenges the understanding of existing tourism resources by asserting that self-wedding photographs and places in Jeju can be utilized as one of the tourism resources through discussion of wedding photographs and tourism.
Inclusive public spaces, a sort of “urban lungs” and “social binders”, are a representation of responsive, democratic and meaningful space within the context of urban development. In the city of Malang, inclusive public spaces have undergone significant changes, and such changes may lead to a kind of degradation of the historical aspect which can in turn lead to a decline in the overall real condition of an area (spatial, sociological and ecological). Therefore, an assessment of historic spaces used as inclusive public space needs to be done in order to conserve their value to the community. This study aimed to identify the development of, existence of, physical characteristics of, and functions of these Inclusive Historical Public Spaces (IHPS); and also to analyse the integrity of the space values related to people’s preferences and needs with respect to these spaces. This research used survey data collection techniques. Analysis and assessment of the space integrity was based on the quality and significance of space consisting of historical, aesthetic, and functional value. The study found that an inclusive historical space is affected significantly by the access to streets, which have different physical characteristics and functions in the four regions in Malang. To realize conservation of IHPS in Malang, which represent the history and image of an overall region, further support is needed through government policy in urban development management, as well as consideration as to the needs and aspirations of the public.
Open spaces provided in mass housing schemes is considered as one of largest issues in public mass housing, and their use by the inhabitants has been a concern and a topic of interest of many fields, where the focus is on inhabitant behavior in space according to either inhabitant/inhabitant or inhabitant/space relation. This open space constitutes a structuring space for the large housing estates, by the ties that connect between the buildings that compose it and the inhabitants who use it. Amongst the various deficiencies that mass housing schemes particular present today is the inability of promoting successful open spaces, which is mainly reflected by patterns of their use, therefore produce an abandoned, deserted, and degraded spaces, this is generally an indication that something is wrong with their layout design, in this regard, this paper revolves around the use of open public space in the 1000 collective housing units in the city of Biskra (Algeria), which provides a variety of open spaces forms, hence; to know how the spatial configuration and the site organization affect the way spaces are used by the inhabitants, based on the hypothesis that the use of open public spaces in mass housing is intimately linked to the visual fields produced by the spatial configuration. The analysis process draws on two methods, an observation in-situ to explore why in the neighbourhood, some parts are more occupied and more preferred by people than others, using the technique of behavioural mapping, i.e. people counting and spatial use mapping, taking into consideration three age groups (children, adults, elderly), further to look for links between visibility and spatial use, a syntactic analysis is carried out to analyze visibility properties using Depthmap software. The results of this study indicate that the visual factor, the buildings arrangements, and the site organization in the mass housing substantially affect the use and the quality of their open spaces.
Global geological hazards have brought huge losses, and the fast development in China is no exception. At present, China's hazard prevention and mitigation research and construction is mostly concentrated in the cities, while the rural, mountainous regions suffering the most serious damage and loss from geological hazards are neglected. In these areas, hazard prevention planning is missing or uses the city standard, lacking scientific analysis and theoretical support. Therefore, the study of disaster prevention and mitigation in remote regions is becoming more urgent. Existing studies on geological hazard prevention mainly focus on urban areas but ignore remote and rural areas where large numbers of people live. By drawing experience from disaster prevention and reduction in urban areas and incorporating effective scientific methods, this study aims to establish a planning support system for disaster mitigation to reduce the impact of disasters in rural areas on people and their property. The most significant contributions this research and practice offers is as follows. Firstly, the high-precision data of the villages, which is usually lacking and difficult to acquire, can easily and quickly be obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (UVA) equipped with optical sensors and laser scanners. Secondly, combining high-precision data and the disaster evaluation model, geological disaster risk assessment technology has been developed for rural areas that addresses not only the natural factors but also human activities. Thirdly, based on disaster risk assessment technology, disaster prevention planning that has been constructed specifically for villages is more quantitative than before. Fourthly, with the application of a planning support system in disaster mitigation, a scientific and effective solution for disaster rescue can be achieved automatically. Lastly, this study selects a suitable area for implementation and demonstration, which can verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the system and enrich the knowledge base through a demonstration case. Based on the above research, a scientific hazard prevention strategy is put forward, which provides a scientific basis for decision-making and a support method for disaster prevention planning in villages.
Due to global climate change, rainfall patterns have become more centralized and are causing serious damage more frequently and heavily. After the experiences of typhoons in Taiwan, the importance of risk communication with residents, especially in the vulnerable river watershed area, has become the main issue of disaster prevention policy; however, this effort is frustrated by the lack of related academic research. This study aims to analyse key factors in risk communication mechanisms and how they influence the decision-making of adaptive behaviours. Firstly, this study builds a conceptual framework of the risk communication process to determine how adaptive behaviours are triggered and guided by risk communication. Questionnaires based on this framework were sent to households in the Kaoping River watershed area to verify its utility using a structural equation model (SEM). Based on the framework, an empirical analysis was performed to analyse the key factors influencing decision-making of adaptive behaviours using multinomial logistic regression. The results show that adaptive behaviours are affected by internal awareness of disaster and by risk communication mechanisms and the external environment. The crucial communication channels through family, friends, neighbours and local governments are highly effective. The key factors influencing decision-making of adaptive behaviours are awareness of disaster and adaptive behaviours. People with higher awareness of disaster and adaptive behaviours are more likely to have positive adaptive behaviours. Furthermore, due to the interaction of environments, risk communication patterns and socioeconomic attributes, people from different communities have different adaptive behaviours. Based on the empirical results, some risk communication measures are proposed to improve disaster-prevention strategies.
This paper introduces a comprehensive framework that assesses the urban heat environment and formulates urban wind paths. Compared with other ecosystems, the wind environment and heat environment in urban areas can be much more complicated and dynamic. Nonetheless, it is of great concern considering the agglomerated population and industries at stake. Hence, multiple computational techniques are developed to assess the contemporary heat environment, and to formulate feasible policies to improve it to a more liveable state by introducing the solution of natural wind. Three key factors are considered: solar radiation, which is the major source of heat; wind direction and wind speed, which transports heat in space; and urban land surface, which may affect radiation reflection, contain auxiliary heat sources or cause vertical air flow. Hence, mesoscale meteorological data are applied to provide information about solar radiation, and are used for simulating local wind flow; Landsat images can be translated into land surface temperature figures; and building and land use databases provide information about built-up features. These combined, the local heat environment in urban areas can be mapped and monitored in a periodic fashion, with wind path analysis providing possibilities in cooling down the hotspots. Practices in cities including Fuzhou and Wuhan have proved constructive, with some others still underway.
Seismologists anticipate the occurrence of a massive earthquake with a hypocenter near Japan's Pacific coast within decades. This study was conducted in October 2015 among 6000 subjects residing in Kochi and Kanagawa Prefectures in Japan, and it investigated ways that residents of the coastal areas perceive the relative safety of urban versus rural areas and the effects of such views on people's desire to relocate to a non-coastal area. This study revealed that the evaluation of safety and resilience to the areas were different and that the extent to which the evaluation affects migration for disaster prevention is extremely small.