Entering an era of a new normal, of emphasizing "people first" and "internalized development", the Chinese urbanization process is shifting from "incremental construction" to "stock management". Therefore, a new approach is required to respond to this change, where urban development is characterized by the slogan, "back to daily life", and problems of urban construction are reviewed on a community scale. Focusing on Yuzhong district, Chongqing, "community development" is a relatively new word. In 2010, the Yuzhong local government improved the regional Community Environmental Renewal and finished it by the end of 2011. Following this, Yuzhong district entered into a phase of urban community development. Based on five different research papers and practical projects in community development between 2010-2015, this paper reviews and analyses the process of community development and community planning in Yuzhong district; the changes reflect the transformation of the demand from urban development on one hand, and the transformation of planning from traditional spatial planning to comprehensive social on the other. Through comparative analysis of key issues, planning objectives, planning ideas, planning strategies, planning methods, public participation, and planning characteristics, this paper proposes starting with community daily life, utilising the community development planning platform to realise idea transformation and action innovation across multiple aspects, such as new methods of knowledge production, community development planning content, community management participation, planner roles, and education.
This study examines the causes of the decadence of the wooden houses in trader communities settled during the period of King Chulalongkorn of Rattanakosin Capital, which represent old urban dwellings in the central region of Thailand. The conditions of remaining wooden houses and disappearing ones were compared to explore appropriate methods of reconstruction or repairs. Since modern developments started in Thailand, most of the original settlements disappeared amongst the rapid changes of urban transformation. Many of the original houses or communities have become abandoned, deteriorated or destroyed. The results show that the speed of deterioration is related to the ability of the dweller to maintain their house. With urbanization, the economy of old communities becomes stagnant and the population ages. If the dwellers in such aging communities hope to improve their houses, a methodology to reduce the cost and the amount of labor is needed. Three things should be considered to achieve this goal: the dwellers' current construction skills, possible techniques that everyone can acquire without difficulty, and available local materials. Revitalizing such old houses will not just provide them a comfortable life but demonstrate the quality and value of early communities, and it will fortify the identity of the local area and help historical conservation.
This study of the formation and transformation process of shopping streets in Chiang Mai, Thailand aims to identify relative social factors and urban developments, based on architectural data, in order to examine the spatial transformation of shopping streets into complex shopping buildings; in order to understand the transformation process, the research also makes use of historical data, detailing past events significant to the process. The formation of shopping spaces in 1884 falls into two categories pertaining to urban elements: permanent elements such as the river and streets, and temporary elements such as the public plaza that has convertible functions. The river in Chiang Mai is a significant historical route for long distance transportation that directly affected street formation, trading space along the street, and the development of the shopping street. The process of the formation of the shopping street before the 20th century organically followed from the pattern of the urban configuration. The development of permanent urban elements such as street and transportation routes, especially the 1921 opening of the train in Chiang Mai, affected transportation by river and the shopping street directly related to the river, but promoted the areas surrounding the train station. The establishment of shopping streets from 1920 are the consequence of the development of permanent urban elements such as street and public transportation. Urban expansion also affected the shopping street in Chiang Mai. The shopping street lost its role as a place of trade due to developments in the 1980s, which gave priority to cars over pedestrians. These irreversible changes to the urban environment, and the shaping of the trading area, are not mainly caused by urban developments, but come from economic stimulation from government policies, especially for the promotion of tourism. This study of the formation of shopping streets in Chiang Mai describes the key factors of formation and transformation of shopping streets and identifies key factors that should be focused on, including economic advantage and sustainable urban development.
Sustainable development requires better understanding of the human-landscape relationship in forested landscapes, one that facilitates more locally relevant and sustainable management. It can be more easily understood by the process of landscape characterisation and humans’ valuation. Therefore, this study assesses local people’s preferences and perceptions about the physical landscape, which is crucial for managing landscape and livelihood. The study investigates the diversification of landscape character types and landscape character areas (LCA), local people’s perceptions about and preferences for different LCAs, and how and why they prefer some LCAs to others. An LCA is a distinct type of landscape that is relatively homogenous in character. Two different villages located in Teknaf peninsula, Bangladesh, are examined where the villages were selected by calculating vegetation cover within a buffer of 1 kilometre. Landform and vegetation data were collected as physical characteristics of the landscape to identify the LCA, and data for local people’s perception and preferences were collected through focus group discussions and questionnaire surveys by selecting 10% of the households of each village in March 2016. The findings show that in Kerantali the diversification of landscape character types was more than in Tulatali. Homestead garden areas are highly preferred in Tulatali and forest is highly preferred in Kerantali. Kerantali's people receive poor material benefit from forest areas, whereas Tulatoli's people receive more material benefit from homestead garden areas. Furthermore, our findings indicate that homestead gardens play an important role as a supplement to forests.
Nowadays, two main biases dominate the World Heritage Site (WHS) management debate. While new tendencies within the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) suggest a dynamic multilayer approach, it remains compulsory for registration in the World Heritage (WH) list to define the “core” and “buffer” preservation zones of a listed site and to have a Management Plan applied to them. Inherited from European planning systems, management boundaries do usually collide with heritage dimensions and eco-cosmological systems, especially in Asia. In view of the lack of effective heritage management models, international experts have blamed, among others, Eurocentric views, the imposition of universal tools and, consequently, the generalised application of “buffer” zones.This research analyses the roots of these three problems through a review of: 1) the dimensions of heritage in each world region (East and West) and within UNESCO, 2) the effects of physical boundaries on the perception of heritage and the related application of WH “buffers”, 3) the integration of 1) and 2) through legal instruments. By comparing both East and West world regions, it is possible to conclude that even though the dichotomy of East-West has been overcome at theoretical levels, there are big gaps in the application of practical management tools. The limited practical use of WHS at the regional level appears as the main management incongruence. In addition, the conflicting definitions of “buffer zones” given by UNESCO suggest the need to both redefine this concept as a top-down defining instrument, and allow for more flexible site definition.