This special issue deals with research presented at the biannual SPSD conference held in Seoul, South Korea in 2017. Specifically, about half of the presentations (total 68) were submitted in full length, aiming for official publication in IRSPSD and from these, this issue was initially based on nine papers. Five papers were finally accepted and comprise this special issue.
While pursuing rapid urbanization and industrialization, the Korean government has also endeavoured to create large scale urban parks. Despite the number of large parks having increased, issues regarding their quality have been consistently raised. Noteworthy, is the quality of Gwanggyo Lake Park, which has been positively evaluated by landscape experts and citizens, and the introduction of a landscape design supervision system is thought to be one of the important reasons for this evaluation outcome. This study conducts a post-evaluation of the role and effect of landscape design supervision on the process of creation of the park. Open interviews were conducted with five staff who participated in the design and construction of the park. As a result of the study, a landscape design supervisor was defined as the second designer, because the supervisor not only monitored whether the construction complied with design, but also played multiple roles in understanding the designer's concept and intention. The landscape design supervisor also responded to the current conditions of the construction site, which included variables and professional opinions from different entities, thereby establishing and producing the most efficient and reasonable alternatives. The landscape design supervisor plays a role in communicating between the public and construction teams. The landscape design supervisor helped maintain the concept and identity of the initial design of the park, raise its overall quality, and implement a design that reflects the special characteristics of the place. It also helped raise landscape designers' self-esteem and sense of happiness by properly reflecting their original design intentions in the construction. This study is an initial research for a post-evaluation using the method of interviewing, which is meaningful as an initial study to analyse the role of landscape design supervisors. It will contribute to future large park projects and the introduction of the landscape design supervision system in them.
Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan, and the city government has applied to host several international events since 2000. Meanwhile, mayors have proposed the slogan “axis retroflexion” indicating the urban regeneration of old town areas. In July 2016, the city government and the National Geographic Channel started a documentary project “Inside: Reinventing Taipei” that cost 5 million NTD for the propaganda of the upcoming Taipei Universiade 2017. The narratives in the documentary indicate the interweaving of historical and modern city images. In this research, the development history of western Taipei is reviewed, and several official and non-official advertisements, movies, music videos, landscape architecture, events, and policy plans are chosen as texts to analyse the representation of the city images of western Taipei (Zhongzheng and Wanhua districts) under an iconological approach. To understand how those city images were produced, various aspects of urban politics and power are explored through this research. It is found that specific buildings and places, such as Chiang Kai Shek Memorial Hall, the North Gate, the Red House Theatre, Longshan temple, and the Ximending shopping area, appeared in those texts frequently, epitomizing the development history of Western Taipei and policies across different periods. The historical, cultural images are represented as buildings, and trendy, energetic commercial images are presented in the official representation, while negative images, such as the ruined, the hopeless, and the order-less, are presented in the non-official representations. Furthermore, with the political intention of “change,” the new governance institution selectively represents some “negative” images that have been absent in previous official representations to emphasize the differences between the old and new governance institutions. Generally, the city images and representations of western Taipei manifest the issues of power and visibility clearly.
This study, as part of the 7030 project, which celebrates in 2019 the 70th anniversary of the establishment of Daejeon as a city and the 30th anniversary of its promotion to a Metropolitan City, places its first purpose on analysing the internal and external marketing-related environments of the city and accordingly, identifying core values (keywords) for the city marketing and finally, suggesting an alternative brand slogan comprising the keywords. A second purpose is, for the purpose of achieving the slogan, to define power brands through the exploration, classification, and assessment of the existing brand assets. Firstly, this study identifies 18 keywords based on the internal and external environmental analysis and, based on two criteria, whether the value is shared by citizens and how it differentiates Daejeon from other cities. The study suggests a revised slogan: “a city of innovation and capacity, pursuing a life of composure and dignity”. Subsequently, to actualize this slogan, this study detects a total of 423 city brand assets and classifies them into eight categories, based on which it conducts an AHP analysis and computes the relative weights of the categories, while it conducts the IPA to evaluate the levels of the recognition and importance of each asset. The AHP weight evaluation, as well as the IPA, is conducted by a citizen planning board of about 50 people. The results of such a group evaluation differs by the background of the rater, and acknowledging the tendency, this study suggests how to interpret and utilize the evaluation results. Finally, it computes the final power brand asset score, which is a function of the AHP weight and IPA point. Such a power brand selection process is then used to develop guidelines and principles for the marketing of each category of brand assets.
A wide range of literature is available about assessing Pedestrian Level of Service (PLOS), which use different approaches and different Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) — or attributes — to characterise the PLOS models. In recent years, there has been a growing consensus of capturing three different constructs in the PLOS model — flow characteristics of the pedestrian traffic, the built walking environment and the user's perception. Existing PLOS literature has been capturing these broad constructs, but not in a combined fashion. This paper explores the MOEs responsible for developing such a PLOS and records expert opinion surveys on a Fuzzy-Likert (FL) scale. Three established rating data techniques —TOPSIS, RIDIT are GRA are then utilised to get a ranking of the MOEs that could be further used to develop the said PLOS model. It is seen from these rankings that of the top 10 MOEs preferred by the experts, nine belong to the broad construct categories of design (built walking environment) and the user's perception, and only one belongs to the broad construct of flow characteristics. This result reinforces the fact that the PLOS has to be created using all the three broad constructs and not separately — or in pairs — as had been done so far. This study also deals with the effectiveness of using an FL scale compared to a Likert scale as a response measurement tool and found that an FL scale is 13.08% more accurate than a Likert scale in measuring ordinal responses.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Dubai metro stations, studying their external roof forms as well as their internal level of services (LOS). The first stage of the study generally studied the best roof form of metro station buildings suitable for Dubai in hot climate regions. Common shapes of roof surfaces of metro stations in hot climate regions such as curvilinear, rectilinear, and composite were studied. Several parameters such as solar radiation, wind pressure, and wind velocity were investigated using an Integrated Environmental Solution Virtual Environment (IESVE) and Flow Design Autodesk in order to select the best roof form suitable for Dubai. Secondly, after receiving the best roof form suitable for hot climate regions, the study was extended to investigate the (LOS) inside Dubai Metro Station using Mass Motion Oasys (MMO). As a result of the study, curvilinear roof forms were found to be more efficient for hot climate regions, matching with the existing roof form of Dubai Metro Stations. Additionally, the second stage of the study provided design guidelines for metro station buildings for hot climate regions.
Transportation has become one of the most significant contributors to CO2 in the world because of its fuel usage. Trees are planted on the roadside to reduce levels of CO2 in the air because trees have the ability to absorb CO2 to be used in the photosynthesis process. This ability will be maximized if the dispersion of CO2 is concentrated around the tree. However, there are some differing results from previous studies regarding this. Some research results have found trees can increase CO2 concentration and vice versa. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate the effect of tree planting on the roadside in dispersing CO2 using a real 3D environment. The methods used in this research are CO2 emission analysis to obtain the amount of CO2. Then, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is used to simulate the dispersion of CO2 in the study area both without trees and with trees. However, due to the mixing of air and CO2, this simulation uses a scalar mixing analysis. Some conditions are considered, such as the characteristics of buildings, the characteristics of trees, and environmental conditions. The result indicates that trees can decrease the velocity and increase the concentration of CO2 on the roadside but decrease CO2 concentration on the road. Tree planting can decrease the velocity by 4.3% in the value range 0.9-1 m/s. This condition increases CO2 concentration on the roadside. Trees can increase CO2 by 25% on the right of a roadside and increase CO2 concentration by 10% on the left side.
Spatial planning plays an important role in achieving efficient and sustainable development in hill areas. It is more critical in hill areas because of the scarcity of land having potential for development. One of the problems frequently faced by planners is the absence of a quantitative approach for spatial planning at the local level. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop the framework for spatial planning at the local level for hill areas. In the process of development of the framework, three tasks have been completed. First, existing spatial planning approaches and frameworks used at the local level have been reviewed. Second, the conceptual framework has been developed for spatial planning based on the review of existing frameworks. Third, the geographic information system based methodology has been developed to execute the developed conceptual framework. The developed framework has been executed for validation on one of the proposed spatial planning projects in hills. The developed framework has been found useful in making spatial planning decisions for both practitioners and researchers involved in the development of hill areas.
Community participation in planning decision-making in Peninsular Malaysia is fundamental for achieving sustainable development by deliberating on the present and future interests of the community. The provision for the community to participate in both the strategic and operational planning is stated in the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172). Community participation in the planning process helps decision-makers to make better decisions by incorporating the community's experiential knowledge into the process. Furthermore, it is meant to promote greater citizenship and to democratise governance through the involvement of multiple stakeholders. Nevertheless, the current state of community participation in planning decision-making in Peninsular Malaysia indicates shortcomings, hence impeding the effort to achieve its primary purpose. This paper attempts to explore the lack of community participation based on its current state. The inadequacies of the conventional participatory process employed by local planning authorities in Peninsular Malaysia are elucidated by reviewing previous studies conducted by Malaysian scholars. The issues that transpire from the literature review are sorted into operational, structural, and cultural aspects. This study concludes that the current community participation in planning decision-making in Peninsular Malaysia points to the ineffectiveness of the process, thus hindering the ability of the community to access a genuine participation avenue.
Compared to other countries, in Germany landscape planning was developed early and has many variations in different federal states. This has generated many experiences with different planning arrangements. Additionally, it makes Germany an interesting example for learning about the strengths and pitfalls of landscape planning under certain framework conditions. The objective of this paper is to describe the system of German landscape planning, its development and its features in the context of governance conditions. The method applied for this purpose is a literature review. An important milestone for landscape planning was its inclusion into the Federal Nature Conservation Act in 1976. Here, landscape planning was established as a precautionary planning, covering a broad range of natural assets and spatially specifying the general legal objectives of nature conservation and landscape management. It turned out to be effective for the inclusion of environmental concerns into spatial development. However, landscape planning could not halt strong driving forces such as urbanization and intensification of agriculture.The specific form and implementation options of German landscape planning can be explained by (i) a governance context with rather strong legalization and respective boundaries for public participation; (ii) by the constitutional barriers to unlimited use of private property and (iii) by a federal system with an unbalanced distribution of competencies between planning tiers. For enhancing the effectiveness of German landscape planning, recommendations are deduced, which include, for example, better access to and homogenization of the information in landscape plans. Furthermore, links between planning and implementation instruments should be strengthened.
In recent years techniques for assessing the “sponge city” concept in practice have been developed and diversified at a rapid pace, therefore a unified assessment framework based on sponge techniques is becoming more and more important for comparing and analysing the performance of different techniques across different sponge city projects. However, previous work has mainly focused on enhancing or developing a certain single sponge technique. This research tries to establish a framework through integrating the resilience of the natural ecosystem with that of engineered infrastructure of sponge cities, forming a new concept of ‘Eco-sponge resilience', and quantifying 'Eco sponge Elasticity'. In particular, a set of elasticities with a unified dimension are developed. The eco-sponge elasticity mainly consists of five types of sponge elasticity and two types of ecological elasticity, including factors such as infiltration, storage, detention, transportation and decontamination, ecological vegetation and natural ecological water elasticities, with which the value of eco-sponge elasticity of a sponge city project can be easily estimated. This research also considers a case study to interpret how to assess the eco sponge elasticities of six pilot sites of sponge city projects in Xiamen. The result shows that the presented evaluation method is feasible and helpful for assessing and enhancing the performance of sponge cities considering four aspects: the water environment, water resources, water security and water ecosystem of the urban system.
Indian cities are known for their notorious traffic congestion and limited mobility. Increasing per capita income and urbanization are further aggravating the already constrained situation and results in hazards like environmental pollution, accidents and health risks. One of the major reasons for the urban congestion problem is the increasing use of private vehicles. This study addresses the problem of congestion by introducing Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies. TDM encourages people to shift from private vehicles to public transport modes like mass transit and buses. In this research the Jaipur Walled City is analysed for the empirical research. The research employs an aggregate Logit modelling for analysing modal choice probability. For the purpose of modelling, data is collected by a mix of primary and secondary surveys. Based on the findings, this research discusses strategic interventions in four sectors – road space redesign, public transit improvements, use of MRTS and parking arrangements.