Currently, Asia accounts for 40% of the world's urban population, which will increase to 56% by 2030. Urbanization is one of the biggest issues in Asian countries. In addition, in the economically developed countries such as Japan and South Korea, the aging problem has also emerged. In order to achieve a sustainable urban society, it is increasingly necessary to find urban design innovations and appropriate research methods and tools. Thus, this special issue focuses on spatial structure for future sustainable cities in Asian countries.
This study attempts to describe the urbanization patterns of China’s cities during the period 1990–2010. Firstly, we selected eight most telling indicators of urbanization for 218 cities from the China City Statistic Yearbook 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011; secondly, we adopted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract three comprehensive indicators from the sample database. They are: Potential Capacity for Expansion of Tertiary Industry (PCETI), the Degree of Urban Commercialization (DUC) and the Potential Capacity for Population Growth (PCPG); thirdly, these three comprehensive indicators were used to classify the 218 cities in 2010 into four groups by Cluster Analysis; fourthly, the same 218 cities in 1990 were classified into those four groups by Discriminant Analysis—Group 1: medium PCETI, remarkable DUC and limited PCPG. Group 2: medium PCETI, limited DUC and limited PCPG. Group 3: limited PCETI, medium DUC and medium PCPG. Group 4: remarkable PCETI, limited DUC and remarkable PCPG. On the basis of the cities’ transition over 20 years and changes of three comprehensive indicators’ levels, we determine ten urbanization patterns. The research could be useful and constructive for rethinking China’s urbanization and new stages of development.
Urbanization patterns in rapidly growing cities are complex. Such patterns reflect historic policy outcomes, economic characteristics and changing lifestyles. This research examined urban growth in Yogyakarta City in Indonesia to understand its urban expansion process. Several attributes of urbanization were measured to understand the city’s urbanization pattern. Land-use data for 1997, 2002, and 2013 were derived from remote-sensing data; in addition, other supporting data of urbanization were measured with several spatial metrics. Analysis was performed for the whole city and for transections across the city to understand macro and local scale characteristics of the urbanization process. Urban land-use changes between 2002 and 2013 were studied to understand the land-use conversion process. Thereafter, the measurements were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial characteristics of urbanization in Yogyakarta City. It was observed that the urban expansion process in Yogyakarta has several distinct stages. Essentially, in the periphery of the city, urbanization has been fragmented. Over time, these fragmented urban patches develop into stable and less complex shapes.
In this study, we created concentrated urban structure models based on the scenarios that demonstrate a compact city. We investigated urban districts, suburban sprawl areas and rural community areas. Moreover, we aimed to show a way to control land use and develop a future urban structure for local cities. The target area is the city of Yamaguchi, a non-area divided city1) and the city of Hofu, an area divided city1). First, using 100 meter mesh data, we analysed urban structures by using district and population distribution. Then, we built future population distribution models from 2010 to 2060 for the target area. Moreover, we produced a “Knowledge Base of Planning Policy” in order to realize a compact city based on each master plan of the target area. Additionally, we set the “Rules of Population Migration” based on it. We created concentration urban structure models that applied the rules to future population distribution models. Lastly, we evaluated the concentrated urban structure models using the population distribution and the distance from urban facilities.
The economy of Japan has been maturing in the beginning of the 21st century. However, the decrease of population, birth rate, and increase of the aging population are proceeding rapidly especially in local cities. As a result, it will become difficult to maintain functions of communities in the future, and it is also forecasted that regional gaps between cities and villages will become large. Being based on regional characteristics, strengthening a wide area in self-sufficiency and exchanges among regions might be called for. This study aims at clarifying the changes of regional characteristics and exchanges among the regions in the Fukuoka wide area, using statistical data and personal trip survey data over the recent decade, paying attention to a new structure of a wide area including cities and villages. As a result, in the Fukuoka wide area, it was made clear that there were six groups which were classified with principal component analysis and cluster analysis, and they have spread concentrically, and become complicated in the recent decade. It might have been influenced by the changes of population distribution and household composition. Moreover, the exchanges among the regions have been broadened in the recent decade. In the Fukuoka wide area,strengthening both self-sufficiency and exchanges among the regions will become important subjects in future.
According to a 2006 report by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Japan has been undergoing a long-term decline in population since 2005. The mid-term and long-term vision of urban and regional planning regards the consolidation of residential areas and public service facilities, including their withdrawal, as necessary for improving the quality of life for rural and suburban residents. From the point of view of provider’s such as the administrative and private sectors, consolidation of facilities is inevitable due to their profitability. Because of the decrease in the number of facility users and their lack of successors, brought about by population decline and aging, it is also difficult for the public administration to provide public services. The purpose of this study is to produce suggestions for sustainable urban and regional spatial structures in Japan. A spatial simulation model was used as a multi-agent-based model to analyze the mid- and long-term changes in the agglutination of residential areas and public service facilities. At first, a multi-agent-based model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the agglutination of residential areas and public service facilities. Next, sensitivity analysis was conducted to adjust some of the crucial parameters that influenced simulation results. Finally, simulations were carried out based on several policy scenarios related to the sustainability and accessibility of the facilities. The results of the analysis indicated that public service facilities are likely to be concentrated in the city center, but that financial support by the administration or non-profitable organizations (NPO) enables facilities located outside of centers to sustain the provision of public service.
Due to rapid urban development in china, traffic problems are fast becoming considerably serious. In this study, we focus on intercity travel characteristics’ research. By investigating the travel characteristics of passengers and the intercity traffic demand forecast, we aim to discriminate the geographical spatial characteristics of departure places and to establish coupling law of city public transportation hubs and urban space which directly connect with the intercity rail station. In future research, we will try to determine theoretical research methods of node location choice in the urban transfer system. We will determine the location of the key hub node and form a transfer service for intercity public network system to improve the efficiency of residential travel.