The term “community planning” appears in various disciplines. Perhaps, there is no universal definition that would be accepted by all scholars given the broad meaning of “community”, the changing players and the evolving approaches of urban planning. “Community” usually refers to people, place and the ties between people in those places. Planning was once the actions of governments for the common well-being of a place. However, in recent decades, a movement of citizen/NGO participation has deepened the practice. According to research that analyzed a total of 1,681 articles with the keyword “community planning” published from 1999 to 2014 in the fields of “Planning Development”, “Geography” and “Urban Studies” in Web of Science databases, the most discussed themes were “collaboration and participation”, “physical planning at the community level”, “special community” (such as gated communities), “safety”, “emotion and identity” (such as the feeling of belonging), “sustainable development”, “revitalization”, and “application of GIS” (Yuan, Liu, & Lin, 2015). In this sense, all the seven articles included in this special issue well fit the meaning of “community planning”.
Social housing is a welfare strategy geared to meeting the housing needs of working people and the middle class. Apart from resolving the basic housing problem of disadvantaged members of society, social housing also seeks to provide excellent residential quality, and achieve the goal of livable cities via enhancement of the quality of the urban living environment as a whole through a community-based approach. The goal of this paper is to explore social housing community development strategies for Taipei City, and examine how they can create livable social housing communities. The chief focal points include determination of problems currently faced by social housing communities in Taipei and formulation of development strategies based on livability criteria. After employing literature analysis to gain an understanding of problems cited in the literature and connected with current standards, the integration of livable city assessment items are discussed in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The publicly-owned idle space consisting of a former Army Maintenance Plant base in Taipei's Xinyi District that can be reused as a social housing community was chosen as the study case, SWOT analysis of the site's internal and external environmental factors and its current state of development were performed, and finally conclusions have been submitted concerning the development needs of livable residential communities and recommendations for Taipei City addressing social housing community development strategies. It is found that current development strategies tend to neglect communities' basic economic loads, and that an appropriate development strategy be constructed on the basis of Taiwan's current "Eco-Community Evaluation System" is recommended by incorporating basic community economic load factors, which will facilitate the sustainability of community management and maintenance.
This paper summarises the proposed physical planning and design in the poor area of Kampong Muharto, Malang City. As a community, the residents want to adjust their spatial setting to accommodate for social activities. This research lays out several options for their neighbourhood with consideration for the available space. The study area was analysed using the Strength-Weakness Opportunity-Threat (SWOT) method and it was found that there were two sections of the area in need of planning and design. The primary objective of this work is to figure out the spatial arrangement for the project with a direct understanding of the various needs of the housing facilities within the limitations of the land boundaries.
Increasing population size puts pressure on each region, epseically on basic services, such as the provision of clean water, sanitation and health facilities. Centres for public health (Puskesmas) are a basic health facilities provided by the government at the administrative level, with one puskesmas per district. Puskesmas based on this administrative requirement cannot be accessed by the entire community because of their relatively difficult affordability. This study aims to provide advice on the development of puskesmas by modeling their development in consideration of several factors, including the condition of the population, the vulnerability of the population to natural disasters, and spatial factors. This model uses the spatial multicriteria evaluation (SMCE) method based on various scenarios. This research will help decision-makers to choose from various simulation results. Site selection models are tested through crosstabulation against the vulnerability of disease to select the best model. This research was conducted in the Purworejo region, Central Java. The results of this research show that there are varying levels of suitability for site selection. The Bruno district, Kemiri district, Grabag district and Bener district are classified as very suitable, while the Purworejo district and Kutoarjo district are classified as not suitable.
Shenzhen is a Chinese city with a very fast-paced work and life environment. Because people there are often under high pressure, fitness and sports have great benefits for their health. In order to study the correlation between inhabitants’fitness and sports activities and the community environment, a questionnaire is designed based upon a review of the literature on fitness behavior and the community environment, and then 595 inhabitants of Shenzhen are surveyed in 2016. The survey involved the demographic information of the subjects, their fitness and sports activities, and the satisfaction of spaces for sports in urban communities. Through analysis of the questionnaire data by cross tabulation, patterns of how and where people like to do exercise have been found. Jogging and walking are the most popular individual activities, where the preferred places are neighborhood gardens, urban squares and parks. The most popular team sports are badminton, table tennis and tennis, where the preferred places are professional fitness clubs, urban squares or parks. Gender differences significantly determine the choice of sport. Males tend to cycle or run individually, and to play ball games as a team. Females prefer to do yoga or eight section brocade individually, and square dance as a team. The factors influencing the satisfaction of places for exercise are ordered as follows: accessibility, fresh air and a clean environment, and low cost. The main requests from locals for the improvement of the recreation environment are the supply of more kinds of sports facilities and fields and better maintenance and management of sports facilities. Some urban design strategies for enhancing the community’s sports environment are recommended.
In China, governments are promoting waste management as an urgent environmental issue. Hangzhou is one of eight cities in China that have launched a pilot run for household waste separation since 2010. The government survey and a previous study of the authors have confirmed the gap between citizens’ positive attitudes and their real behavior related to waste separation. In our study, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is applied to analyse the factors that could influence the behavioral intention of the citizens towards separating waste. The structural model based on TPB was constructed to represent the framework of the citizens’ intentions related to their waste separation behviour, based on a pilot survey and expert interview. Following the model, a 211-sample questionnaire survey was designed and conducted in Hangzhou. 19 extracted factors are categorized and structured following TPB. The result shows: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control have positive influence on behavioral intention; perceived behavioral control exerts stronger influence than the other factors. Based on the findings, this study discusses policy implications and recommendations for improving the current policy and the situation of household waste separation.
With the process of urbanization, China has entered into a booming of construction, and new buildings currently cost large quantities of natural resources and energy. Green Buildings are one of the approaches being implemented to help to mitigate the impacts of the building stock on the environment. However, the majority of green buildings are located in eastern region of China where the economies are more developed. For developing regions in the middle and western regions, green buildings are few. Low income is easily assumed to be the barrier, but research performed to test this assumption, is scarce. The authors of this paper chose Shanxi Province, a less developed region, as the area of investigation to investigate this issue. The authors developed a framework of consumer behaviour based on the Howard Sheth model to find the key factors that affect people’s willingness to pay (WTP), for which a questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area in Shanxi Province. The survey data were analysed by logistic regression and cross tabulation methods. The results revealed that rather than income, the knowledge related to green buildings and awareness of environmental protection had significant impacts upon green building WTP. Based on the analyses, several suggestions were developed, including: imposing certain demands on constructors of buildings to adopt green facilities, improving the publicity of green buildings, etc. This study investigated people’s real attitudes toward green building and found a high WTP in the region, which deserves further attention from the relevant stakeholders in the future.
More and more international students come to China for higher education, and their host cities become key platforms for demonstrating China’s image and soft power. So far, many studies have analysed international students’ language learning and cultural adaptation, however, very few focus on what factors attract international students to certain Chinese cities instead of others. This study aims to determine the key factors attracting international students to study in Changchun, a city in northeast China, from a qualitative approach. The authors apply both survey questionnaires and in-depth interviews to obtain insights and determine the underlying reasons influencing their selection. Results from a total of 190 questionnaires and 59 interviews are collected for analysis. The results indicate that certain factors, including economic factors, such as the cost of living and scholarships, political factors, such as government coordination, and sociological factors, such as religious tolerance, play dominating roles in their decision-making process. Additionally, the discussion and policy recommendations of each section offer useful insights for policy-makers for attracting and accommodating international visitors to cities like Changchun.
Urban ecosystem services (ESs) can moderate many common environmental issues in cities that are caused by the land use transformation central to urbanization. However, quantitative knowledge of historical changes in ES provisioning at various urban scales is limited. In this research, it is proposed to identify ESs, especially those generated by urban green space (UGS), and quantify their spatiotemporal variations at the regional scale in the southern part of Seoul City, Korea. Changes are first detected in landscape patterns, then one ES indicator — carbon sequestration (CS) — is chosen as a test case, and its spatial pattern explored using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. Total potential CS decreased by 41.2% from 1975 to 2015, with loss and fragmentation of landscapes occurring and patches becoming smaller and simpler in shape in the urban area, as indicated by landscape metrics. Moreover, strong decreases in urban forest and agricultural areas were the primary causes of loss of CS. On the other hand, a 120% increase in the grassland area somewhat offset these two factors. It is hoped that these results will contribute to cognizance of the potential of historical processes to inform future policy decisions related to green infrastructure and land-use planning.
Spatial planning is a term with ambiguity because there is no generally agreed definition (Kai, 2007). “Spatial planning system” is still a complex topic strongly related to the context of administrative systems. As long as there are urbanization and development around the world, those topics will stay important along with the changing socio-economic situations. Right now there is a common phenomenon in many countries/regions where numerous layers of spatial plans are formulated by different stakeholders or governing bodies. Therefore, to avoid spatial policies overlapping or contradicting with each other, some countries/regions are promoting new ways to coordinate spatial plans, making integral spatial policy frameworks. Thus, this special issue focuses on several reviews of spatial planning system reform, as well as some relevant case studies.
In this template file as introduction for the format of this journal. As a country with a long history of spatial development, France is distinguished in the world by its profound tradition of spatial planning. Since the mid-20th century, a multi-dimensional spatial policy framework and a multi-layered spatial planning system have been established and developed successively, for the purpose of guiding comprehensive and well-balanced spatial development all over the country. They help promote balanced regional development and urban-rural development, implement special management over specific areas, and encourage the cooperation of governments and departments at various levels. As a critical review on the spatial policy framework and the spatial planning system of France which have been in force since the 2000s, this paper analyses in a systematic way the structure of the policy framework and the planning system respectively, as well as the interrelation between spatial policies with spatial plans, elaborates the hidden logic of coordination through an integrated spatial planning system for the purpose of a well-balanced spatial development all over the country, and summarizes some key facts that guarantee the efficiency of coordination through integration, such as cooperation among governments and departments, presenting integration in urban plans, and the active role of central government. It concludes that the French experience of coordinating various spatial plans formulated by different stakeholders at different levels through an integral spatial planning system based on an integral spatial policy framework can serve as inspiring reference for developing countries like China that are facing the urgency of structuring an integral spatial planning system to deal with the disconnection or even conflict among different departmental plans concerning spatial development.
This paper focus on the integration of multi-planning in the widespread small and medium-sized cities in China, which are now facing embarrassment in the process of urbanisation. As the basic executors within the three-level administrative system, small and medium-sized cities are being trapped in the multifaceted dilemma of population loss, constrained spatial and natural resources and less positive policies. In order to find an optimized approach to achieve urban transformation while responding to these practical problems, this paper proposes spatial planning that collates and integrates all of the current plans completely, eliminating their discrepancies and forming one blueprint for the city. This is a new approach leading the transformation of small and medium-sized cities. This approach must be comprehensive, multi tasking, highly exercisable and localised, and balanced between economic growth and environmental improvement in order to better the urban and rural life of these numerous small and medium-sized cities.
WiFi is one of the most useful technologies that can be used for detecting and counting MAC addresses. Many previous studies have interpreted MAC address data into other forms for use in infrastructure development and urban transport. This study uses onboard WiFi scanners, circulated on the "Romango Bus", a hop-on-hop-off bus that has nine bus stops with roaming time from 09.50 to 17.50. The method uses WiFi and GPS MAC addresses as raw data from WiFi devices, collected during the time the bus goes around the route. WiFi scanner devices are placed on two different buses for comprehensive monitoring of the route's operating hours. Raw data obtained in the form of WiFi data and GPS data is combined and processed through five steps to produce non-passenger data. The results are displayed on a map that contains MAC address data, and that specifies non-passenger data categorized into pedestrians, vehicles, and buildings. Obuse is a tourist area that has many tourist attractions, and the results of WiFi at stopover locations shows a high number of pedestrians, especially at Obuse Park and Obuse Station.
A multiplicity of spatial plans in a planning system can have different ways of co-existing under different institutional organizations. Having a highly centralized government like China, the phenomenon of a multitude of national-level plans dominating at the same time has its own unique characteristics. Much literature emphasizes only the lacking of coordination between governmental institutes. However, this research finds that the current constitution of the Chinese planning system profoundly reflects the relations between central and local governments. This paper first examines the characteristics of the Chinese political system, briefly reviewing the iterative process of “centralization-decentralization-selective centralization”, showing the rise and fall of spatial planning as an administrative tool of local governments. Especially since the 1990s, the central government has raised revenue from the local level, which leads to local governments depending more on selling land for quick money. But as the urban expansion accelerates, the state asserts its control on local development by the National Main function Plan and National Land-use Plan, which seriously impedes the coordination of spatial plans at different levels. Therefore, this study argues that spatial planning reform in China requires not only generating integrated information platforms and technical standards, but more importantly, establishing new relations between central and local government. In the end, some suggestions are made on central authorities reducing the constraints of a planning censorship system and rebalancing the responsibility and the public finance of local government on planning matters.
Since the establishment of a unified spatial planning system was introduced at the Central Urban Work Conference, 2015, a number of cities across China have introduced “multiple-plan integration” planning practices. In 2016, the Meeting of the Central Leading Group for Deepening Overall Reform approved a proposal in Ningxia Autonomous Region, China to carry out a province-wide multiple-plan integration and spatial reform pilot. With a total territory area of 664,000 km2, Ningxia is suitable for exploring a new theoretical mode for multiple-plan integration. This paper first reviews the policy from “multiple-plan integration” to the reform of the spatial planning system, which has become the principal means for conducting spatial governance and land use control. The paper will introduce the basic logic and framework of the Ningxia example based on the project study. Mainly focused on the compilation of spatial planning systems, this research derives from planning of functional zones, and key and core content of technology integration, so as to enrich the current research findings and provide new insights for the practice of spatial planning at the provincial level.
Studies have shown that the city size distribution is in line with the power law distribution. By testing the city size distribution of cities in certain administrative levels in sub-national administrative areas in China, it was found that compared with power law distribution, the triangle law distribution put forward can better fit the city size distribution characteristics. The triangle law means the city size distribution structure is shaped like the city administrative division structure. That is, cities of the highest administrative level have far bigger size than other cities, and the city size distribution law of cities in the next administrative level is in accordance with the normal distribution. The triangle law hypothesis is put forward by the analysis of city size growth logic in China, and the institutional influence was considered as the main influencing factor. The results show that the city administrative system has probably shed light on the city size distribution. Further analysis shows the triangle law is more applicable in areas with higher population and fewer next levelled cities. Lastly, by new parameters extracted from the triangle law, the city size distribution characteristics of different regions in China are analysed.