[Background] In Japan, the rate of female smokers has increased and holds up at present. In order to decrease the smoker rate in women, it is important to develop effective education programs to prevent smoking and effective interventions to help quit smoking for young women, who show the highest smoking rate among women. [Objectives] The present study is to adopt the transtheoretical model (TTM) for smoking acquisition in university women, to validate systematic changes in pros and cons of smoking according to the stage of change, and to identify stage-related factors for smoking behavior. [Methods] A total of 192 Japanese university women were surveyed in questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of five items to identify the stage of smoking behavior, with pros and cons of smoking, knowledge of smoking harms, smoking statuses of acquaintances, personality and sensation-seeking tendency. [Results] The result showed TTM can be applied to account for smoking acquisition in university women, and systematic changes in pros and cons of smoking by stage of change were observed. Additionally, the characteristics of stages were shown by smoking-related and psychological factors; in the contemplation/preparation stage, perceived benefit of smoking was high and knowledge of smoking harm, was relatively low, and in the action stage, low conscientiousness and high sensation-seeking tendency were found. Also, women seemed to be influenced by the same-sex people around them. [Conclusion] The present study showed that Transtheoretical Model can be applied to explain smoking acquisition in university women. According to the stage of change, basic data were provided to benefit future smoking prevention education and support to quit smoking.
[Background] In May 1999, the nicotine patch first became commercially available in Japan as an agent to promote smoking cessation, for which health insurance was not applicable. In June 2006, the partial application of health insurance was approved only for patients with nicotine dependency. Thus, this patch has been employed in an increasing number of nicotine-dependent patients who have tried to stop smoking. In this study, we investigated the short-and long-term success rates (1-year smoking cessation rate) of treatment with this nicotine patch and factors influencing these rates to establish future treatment based on our results. [Methods] The subjects were 105 patients in whom a nicotine -dependency management fee was calculated in our clinic between June 2006 and May 2007. Examination items included the short-term and 1-year smoking cessation, rates, as well as the influence of factors such as the patient background and the state of smoking on the smoking cessation rate. [Results] In 89 patients, smoking cessation continued after the end of treatment, and the short-term smoking cessation rate was 84.8%. We investigated factors influencing successful smoking cessation in. individual patients via logisti regression analysis. The smoking cessation rate decreased with an increase in the TDS score (odds ratio: 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-8.22) In 61 patients in whom the interval from the start of treatment was 1 year, the continuation of smoking cessation was confirmed in 49 patients after 1 year of treatment, and 1-year smoking cessation rata was 80.3%. We similarly examined each factor, and the 1-year smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in females (odds ratio: 34.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-971.57). Furthermore, the smoking cessation rates in groups showing a high TDS score and with an underlying disease were slightly lower. [Conclusion] Male gender favorably influenced the 1-year smoking cessation rate. On short-term examination, gender was not a significant factor, suggesting that it does not influence the short-term smoking cessation rate, whereas it is difficult for females to maintain smoking cessation. In groups showing a high TDS score and with severe nicotine dependency, the 1-year smoking cessation rates were lower, as previously reported.
Habitual cigarette smoking and a depressive state are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events, and may synergistically increase the risk. As the first step to solve these problems, we investigated the depressive state of cigarette smokers. In 30 patients with no previous diagnosis of mental disorder who visited a smoking cessation clinic for the first time (26 males and 4 females, mean age: 61 years), a self-rating1 depression scale (SDS) test was performed. The SDS score was higher than. 53 points in one patient (depression) between 48 and 52 points in 7 (23%, neurosis)； and between 39 and 47 points in 9 (30%, a borderline normal/neurotic state). The SDS score was not significantly correlated with the Brinkman Index (number of cigarettes smoked/day x years), age at the time of starting smoking, index of nicotine dependence (FTND, or TDS score), but significantly higher in patients with a low level of confidence (%) regarding smoking cessation (r=-0.396, p=0.0327). These findings demonstrate a relatively high incidence of a depressive state in smoking patients, despite their not being diagnosed with depression. This fact might be involved in the interference with smoking cessation.
[Background] No Smoking Wakayama was established in 1987. The year 2007 was a memorable year of the 20 th World No-tobacco Day by WHO, so we reviewed the 20 years of No Smoking Wakayama.[Methods]: Activity reports were reviewed up to the latest issue (No.57), Our own papers presented at local public health, meetings were also examined. [Results] Of all the activities, street campaigns against passive smoking at JR Wakayama Station were undergone every year. After 2000, we took part in local Health Japan 21,tobacco control policy in Wakayama, and Wakayama Anti-smoking Association [Conclusion] We did what we could do at our own time with voluntary members. We need younger members under 40 years old for our future activities
[Background] The Oita Taxi. Kyokai prohibited smoking in all taxis in Oita City in April, 2006 and in Beppu City in July, 2006. The present study reports the results of a questionnaire distributed to taxi user's in Oita and Beppu how they feel about the total smoking ban in taxi [Methods] The questionnaire about “nonsmoking taxis” was as follows.
(Q.1) Do you know the total smoking ban in taxis?
(Q.2) Do you agree with the implementation?
(Q.3) Do you want the implementation continue?
(Q.4) (To smokers) Did you plan to quit smoking because of the implementation? [Results] Among 1,890 answer (effective answer rate 96%) smokers were 764 (40%). 74% of the smokers and 71% of the nonsmokers replied that they knew about the total smoking ban in taxies. Among 1,363 who replied “yes” to Q 1,43% of the smokers and 95% of the nonsmokers replied to agree with the implementation, and 46% of the smokers and 97% of the nonsmokers replied the continues. 25% of smokers replied that They planed to quit smoking because of the implementation. [Conclusion] The results showed the smoking ban in all taxis was fairly well accepted and received a favorable. This study was the first report to reveal the actual conditions after a smoking ban had been implemented in all taxis controlled by an administrative unit in Japan. These data may assist policymakers in promoting policies regarding nonsmoking taxis in the future.