This study was designed to investigate changes of symptoms over time regarding withdrawal and urge to smoke following a short period of smoking abstinence that lasted for 3 hours in young smoker.
All Participants (N=20) were not allowed to smoke for 3 hours, and they were requested to evaluate their own symptoms of withdrawal and urge once an hour for 3 hours during the abstinence period, using the Japa-nese version of MPSS. Thus there were four times of MPSS evaluations for one participant during the absti-nence, those which were analyzed as dependent variables.
The two-way mixed analysis of variance showed that “irritability”, “restlessness”, “poor concentration” and “urge to smoke (time spent for, and strength of urges)” were increased significantly as time passed. There were also significant positive correlations among items as “irritability”, “restlessness”, “poor concentration” and “time spent with urges” in terms of changes from 0 to 3 hours following the smoking abstinence.
These results indicate that “irritability”, “restlessness”, “poor concentration” and “urge to smoke” were induced more rapidly than “depression” and “hunger” following the smoking abstinence.
This study aimed to categorize smoking situations on daily lives of young smoker as well as states of “Withdrawal” and “Urge to Smoke” in each smoking situation. All participants (N = 22) took the cigarettes “after meal” and “refreshing” situations during six days of investigation. Most participants had smoked at such situations as “break time during work (N = 21)”, “being apart from non smoking area (N = 19)” and “need to have something in mouth (N = 19)”. In each situation, correlations of MPSS (Withdrawal and Urge to smoke) and QSU-Brief (Desire to Smoke and Negative Reinforcement) are calculated.
As results, QSU-Brief did not showed correlations with several withdrawals, however, there were significant positive correlations between “Strength of Urge to Smoke (MPSS)” and QSU-Brief in all situations. Addi-tionally, the correlations between “time spent with urge to smoke (MPSS)” and “Desire to Smoke” was dif-ferent each situation.
These results showed that the profiles of “Withdrawal” and “Urge to Smoke” levels are specifically determined depending upon each smoking situation. Therefore, it is necessary to construct the coping strate-gies that are appropriated for the specific profiles of “Withdrawal” and “Urge to Smoke” levels regarding the smoking situations in supporting abstinent young smokers.
The article reviews various scales to assess level of symptoms induced by cessation of cigarette smoking, such as withdrawal, craving, and urge, placing importance on the simultaneous evaluation of the craving and urge to smoke along with the nicotine dependence and withdrawal degree.
In Europe and the United States, the withdrawal, craving, and urge have been regarded as the factor that disturbs the smoking cessation, causing the lapse and relapse. Researchers have focused on those three fac-tors not only in the support for smoking cessation but also in the clinical therapy for the same purpose. Thus they have been collecting data based on the three scales : Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale（MNWS）, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges（QSU）, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale（MPSS）, in addition to the nicotine dependence degree.
In Japan, however, the support for smoking cessation has been carried out focusing only on the level of nicotine dependence degree. Thus it is important to assess other factors employed in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, to support those who try to cease smoking and to offer them custom-made coping strate-gies, recognizing the symptoms due to the smoking cessation would be increasingly crucial in the near fu-ture.