Japanese Journal of Smoking Control Science
Online ISSN : 1883-3926
Volume vol.2 , Issue 03
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
  • : a historical review.
    Seiji Morioka
    2008 Volume vol.2 Issue 03 Pages 1-4
    Published: 2008
    Released: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Abstract
    [Background] Dr Takeshi Hirayama activated studies on Japanese smoking control science fields, but the beginning of such studies is not clear. To detect the birth period, I reviewed articles in a medical journal.
    [Methods] All the articles in Japan Medical Journal throughout Number 1 published in 1921 to Number 4366 in 2007 were examined.
    [Results] The first article was a letter from a reader on a smoking cessation method in 1929. The first discussion on smoking and dental health by 2 medical doctors appeared in 1936. In 1944, a post card survey report on smoking and health was delivered. After these papers, 25 articles were found and recognised as smoking control category between 1950 and 1989. After 1990, more than 40 papers were issued.
    [Conclusion] In Japan, early studies on smoking control science were born before the World War Ⅱ, namely 1930 s.
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  • Hiromichi Wada, Koji Hasegawa, Sachiko Terashima, Chiaki Itoh, Yuko Ii ...
    2008 Volume vol.2 Issue 03 Pages 5-10
    Published: 2008
    Released: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Abstract
    The first step to motivate smokers to quit smoking is to give them enough knowledge and raise their awareness of smoking-related health risks. In order to help smokers successfully quit smoking, it is important to know the differences in the levels of perception and interest regarding smoking-related health consequences between smokers and non-smokers. A survey was administered to patients visiting Outpatient Department of Cardiovascular Disease or Health Screening Center, National Hospital Organization, Kyoto Medical Center to measure current knowledge and interest regarding the health problem of cigarette smoking. Results from this survey offered there were no significant differences in levels of knowledge about smoking-related health risks between in smoker and non-smokers. In contrast, levels of interest were lower in smokers than in non-smokers in most questionnaires. Levels of perception regarding the effect of public smoking ban on decreased incidence of myocardial infarction, harmful effect of outdoor smoking on indoor secondhand smoke, and the risk of development of diabetes were especially low both in smokers and non-smokers, suggesting that more attention should be given to these informations. Notably, levels of interest were significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers regarding passive smoking-related risks, the effect of public smoking ban on decreased incidence of myocardial infarction and harmful effect of outdoor smoking on indoor secondhand smoke.
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  • - A Comparative Study
    Kosuke Kiyohara, Yuri Itani, Yoshitaka Matsumoto, Yuko Takahshi
    2008 Volume vol.2 Issue 03 Pages 11-16
    Published: 2008
    Released: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Abstract
    [Background] The effects of the enforcement of a total smoke-free school policy on teachers' behavior or attitude towards tobacco have been discussed in a limited and insufficient manner. In an attempt to alleviate the lack of research in this area, the present study evaluated differences in behavior and attitude towards smoking between teachers working at totally smoke-free schools (Group 1) and teachers working at schools without any regulations regarding tobacco use (Group 2).
    [Methods] A self-reported questionnaire was sent to all public school teachers in Nara City (n=1748) in January 2007. Experiences with secondhand smoke in school during1 the past month, smoking status, tobacco consumption per day, experience with smoking prevention instruction, and attitude towards a smoke-free school were surveyed and chi-square tests were performed to evaluate the contribution of a total smoke-free school policy to the responses to these items.
    [Results] Sixty-nine of 70 schools cooperated with the survey and a total of 1403 teachers were enrolled in the study. The number of participants in Group 1 and Group 2 were 168 and 1235, respectively, In Group 1,3.6% of respondents experienced secondhand smoke in school, compared with 37.9% in Group 2 (p<0.001). Smoking status of the participants was significantly associated with the presence of a total smoke-free policy (Group 1: Never- 71.4%, Ex- 21.4%, Current- 7.1%; Group 2: Never-71.4%, Ex-15.6%, Current-13.0%). In Group 1,60.9% of respondents had presented smoking1 prevention instructions, compared with 51.3% in Group 2 (p=0.022). Group 1 tended to have a positive attitude towards a smoke-free school compared with attitudes expressed in Group 2, regardless of their smoking status (Nonsmokers: p<0.001, Smokers: p =0.011).
    [Conclusion] The enforcement of a smoke-free school policy appears to contribute to a reduction in passive and active smoking rates among teachers and encourages them to provide smoking prevention instructions. In addition, after the regulations are introduced, even those who continue to smoke tobacco may accept a smoke-free workplace
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  • Hideko Katou, Takeo Nakayama, Yuko Takahashi
    2008 Volume vol.2 Issue 03 Pages 17-24
    Published: 2008
    Released: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Abstract
    [Background] According to government teaching guidelines, a smoking prevention program is carried out in the 6th grade at primary schools in Japan. In Nara Prefecture, picture-book educational materials aimed at 5-or 6 year-old children for prevention of smoking1(“Bye-bye Smoky King”) were distributed to 1st graders at all elementary schools within the prefecture from 2003 to 2005. In this study, we examined the knowledge, perception and experiences of smoking among 5th graders who received the picture-book educational materials when they were 1st graders.
    [Methods] A cross sectional survey of 2422 5th grade school children from Nara City elementary school was performed in October /November, 2007 using anonymous self-administered questionnaires on the health hazards of smoking, how to quit, views on smoking, smoking experiencess, and the smoking status of their families. In addition, they were asked whether they remembered the educational materials, and a free space was provided for writing about “what they talked to their families about regarding smoking” and “what they wanted to know about smoking”
    [Results] Questionnaires from 2334 students were analyzed. To the question. “If someone tried to persuade you to smoke, what do you think you would do?” 61.0% answered,“1 would refuse because I don't like to smoke” and 28% answered, “I would try to say that I do not want him to smoke because it will be bad for him.” These answers indicate that the students generally had a negative perception of smoking. In addition, 93.5% answered that they knew about smoking dependence and they already had some knowledge about the harm of smoking 4.2% stated that they had smoked at least once, and 8.1% had experienced the temptation to smoke. The free written answers suggested a need for a deeper understanding about the harm of smoking among children in the upper class of elementary school. Only 33.9% remembered the picture-book educational materials.
    [Conclusion] The 5th graders in the study generally had a negative disposition toward smoking and many were interested in smoking prevention. We suggest further discussion of the program according to the needs of children in the upper class of elementary school and possible implementation of an earlier program.
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  • A Igarashi, S Ikeda, R Goto, K Kiyohara, H Miura, Y Takahashi, S Nishi ...
    2008 Volume vol.2 Issue 03 Pages 25-35
    Published: 2008
    Released: November 04, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Abstract
    [Objectives] To estimate the economic impact on overall revenue of the tobacco tax increase that is due to be implemented on January 1,2009, using a conservative estimation.
    [Methods] Given, the difficulty of applying the price elasticity of tobacco demand to a large tax increase (from JPY 100 to JPY 700), we conducted an overall, analysis based on the conjoint analysis of Goto et al in 2007, in which it was estimated how many smokers think of quitting smoking for a given tobacco price increase. Success rates for quitters were derived from a fact-finding survey by the Central Medical Council in Japan for the short-term (less than 1 year). For long-term analysis, we also applied the effects of a tobacco demand decrease due to issues other than price, based on domestic research.
    Additional, we also considered the re-smoking rate to the quitting rate. We also used foreign data when no do mestic data were available. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for i) short-term success rate, ii)long-term success rate,and iii) calibration for young smokers, who are more sensitive to a tax increase.
    [Results] Analysis of the base situation showed that if the tax increase is implemented on January 1,2009, the total amount of tobacco tax collected will reach a peak in 2009 or 2010.If the price per pack is changed from JPY 300 to JPY 500 or JPY 1,000, the largest amount of tobacco tax collected would be JPY 2.38 trillion (USD 21.6 bil., USD 1=JPY 110) and JPY 3.06 trill(USD 27.8 bil.), respectively.Compared to the estimation without a tax increase, the total amount of additional, tobacco tax collected would be JPY 440 bil. (USD 4.0 bil) and JPY 1.28 tril. (USD 11.6 bil.),respectively. The robustness of the results was shown in various sensitivity analyses. [Conclusion] A tobacco tax increase will result in a rise in the total amount of tobacco tax collected.
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