This article discusses the methods of design theoretics and related research issues. First, the authors historically review the terminologies of “design” and “creativity” in the field of design research. Then, the authors redefine design as a process for composing a desirable figure toward the future on the basis of their classification of design -- drawing, problem solving, and pursuit of the ideal. Next, they elucidate upon the key issues of design, namely inside-outside issue, time, and abstraction, and introduce three potential research methodologies of design-that is, internal observation, computational simulation, and theoretical modeling. Further, the authors demonstrate an example of a desirable design of motion by assuming that an emotional and creative motion is expected to extend beyond the images produced by human imagination and resonate with the feelings residing deep within us. Finally, the authors claim to form an important view of design in the future society, which doesn't focus on the notion of efficiency.
We try to generate something new by interrogating ourselves on the notion of design science and on the notions derived during designing the design science. At the very beginning of designing, we introduce the notion of designing as an activity of constructing a new system. Then, first, we generate a hypothetical model of such a constructive process as repetitions of the cycles of synthesis (or, generation), analysis, and focusing towards a preferred situation. Second, we analyze the model with reference to processes of making artifacts. Third, on the basis of the analysis, we give ourselves the direction to the sophistication of the model and introduce the variables that should complement the model. We repeat the loop of the first, the second, and the third. As implied above, we design the model of the constructive process and apply the model to our activity of designing the model.
The present paper advocates an argument that exploring art and skills is an act of “designing” own body. Providing evidence for a practice of designing own body to acquire embodied skills in Kendou, we discuss what kind of consciousness and acts are promoted by the methodology of embodied meta-cognition, and what the act of designing own body through meta-cognition brings about in life.
In recent years, when art and design students have the chance to be involved in film production they tend increasingly to produce animations. Young artists and professional designers are also showing a positive interest in animation and have been developing their own techniques of production. Focusing from a high-level perspective on the series of production processes involved in time-based visual media and explicitly defining these processes as design, this paper argues that artists and designers need to establish their own methods of “design for designing”. The preparation of visual design materials in the preliminary stages of animation production is essential for developing ideas and passing these on to subsequent processes. Such consciousness concerning the importance of the objective visualization of ideas can make a valuable contribution to the originality of the creative work itself. Introducing the practice of “Frame-by-Frame Shooting” in design education, this paper considers the contribution which the use of moving images, especially animation, can make to the design process. The paper also discusses the effectiveness of self-observation in the process of “design for designing” with reference to the concept of meta-cognition. This discussion is intended to address some hitherto under-researched questions concerning moving images in the field of cognitive science.
Even from the same film material, change of the way to edit film makes it possible to emphasize the story and other characteristics than the story in the film. That consequently changes effects on the viewer. Editing film designs not only the film itself but also the cognitive relation between the film and the viewer. This study used the scene of The Passion of Joan of Arc by Carl Th. Dreyer that Joan cuts her hair, and edited 16 kinds of films. 10 of them were used to conduct a questionnaire survey and look at the designs. Especially in the dialectic editing emphasizing the story by adopting 4 kinds of montage theories (metric montage, rhythmic montage, tonal montage, and overtonal montage) by Eisenstein, the editing separating them off, and the editing combining both of them, we discuss the differences in the processes of designing rhythm of film in the cognitive relation with the viewer. Particularly in the film emphasizing irrational cutting aspects, viewer's viewpoints frequently changed, which indicated the move of viewpoints to other things like editing than the story, and in the film emphasizing the dialectic aspects, it was indicated that they tended to be absorbed in the story.
This paper discusses musical activities as constructive process of cognition and presents a new approach to grasp whole phenomena crossing individual-organizational-social level of it. Musical performances can be understood as constructive process of cognition. In the creative process of music, musicians generate deviations which raise information quantity of musical communication to maximum level. Such deviations give non-referential musical meaning to musicians and audiences. During musical performance, especially in jazz improvisation, a generated deviation continually repeats cognitive negotiation with dominant schema, and renews the schema if the deviation can be recognized as a newly expanded variation. Modern jazz musicians construct their improvisations depending on the jazz musical theory of scale and chord progressions in analytical technique, on the other hand they construct deviations without any theoretical method and analytical technique. Such deviations are the essence of musical creation process, which can be generated only with constructive technique. Turning attention to upper structure, organizational and social level of musical activities also can be understood as constructive process of cognition. Leaders ingeniously coordinate heterogeneous talented members, strongly present future visions and concepts as well. Innovators strategically conduct cognitive negotiations between radicalism and contemporaneous to succeed in innovating style and mode of music and diffusing them all over the society. Therefore musical activities, not only individual or collective level but also organizational and social level, can be seen as constructive design process in which different levels are deeply intertwined.
This paper focuses on the role and nature of text as external representations that designers interact with, in the same way as they interact with sketch representations during a creative design process. Existing studies about text and natural languages in the field of design studies have primarily focused on how to record the verbal communications and written text, uttered and expressed during a design process so that one could reconstruct, remember, and recollect the situations in the past. Little has been studied, however, about how designers choose wordings in expressing design ideas and concepts, how such textual representations evolve over time, and how the choice of wording affects the subsequent design process. Based on our experience of conducting design case studies in an industry-university cooperative research project, we describe how designers express words, phrases, sentences and wordings on whiteboards, and how design materials expressed in text evolve over time. We then argue for a research agenda for design theoretics, which focuses on the role and nature of wording as external representations to interact with throughout a design process.
In participatory design, not only the designer, but other people such as end users participate in the process of designing to satisfy as many people as possible with the final product. The problem is, however, that interaction among people does not necessarily lead to good results. In our project we aim to make a design that reflects many people's intentions without interaction among them. We use rich text data from the web and computationally analyze the data to extract the intentions of people concerning the design. In this paper, we propose what data to use and how to analyze the data from a cognitive linguistic point of view. The points are that (i) we should use texts which are written spontaneously (such as those found in micro-blogs) and (ii) we should analyze the tense markers and epistemic modalities of the texts to extract intentions. We also introduce in the paper our workshop held at a library in an art university. In this workshop, we have visualized the intentions of students on digital maps.
Expressive activity is embodying for others something that is in one's own mind. It is a complex and delicate activity integrating processes of conception, embodiment, and refinement. The tools and locations for expressive activity must draw forth participants' expressive ability by balancing freedom and constraint. How should such tools and locations be designed to foster expression activity? Tools for expression using computers may impose new restrictions even as they bring freedom from physical constraints. For example, educational tools that use computers for expressive activity, such as LEGO, suggest new possibilities for expression by building a realm of new constraints into the computer. We wish to propose a framework for designing such distinctive tools and to clarify the design characteristics and challenges of stimulating expression through their use.
In the creative design process, it is difficult to observe the creative process from an inner perspective when people are deeply engaged in their work. The reason behind this is that the people who are absorbed in the work are assumed to have entered the flow state. Moreover, an external observation of the design process fails to grasp the designers' thoughts since they are stimulated by intrinsic motivation and formed owing to inner dynamics. The aim of the study described in this paper is to propose a method to observe the internal thoughts elicited during the creative design process by extending Reflections and Poietiques. This method comprises three stages: (1) the creative design process, (2) the formulation of two reports on the designer's work by the designer and a third person (art researcher), and (3) the formulation of another report by the designer after examining both the reports created in the second stage. The process of self-formation is expected to begin in the third stage. The observation is determined to be established, on condition that the self-formation is confirmed during this observation process. We applied this method to a space-designing project. The three reports were analyzed, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and a number of observations that were not included in the previous two reports were identified in the third report. Following these analyses, we could confirm that the process of self-formation was initiated in the third stage and the observation was complete.
Currently, ethnomethodologically oriented ethnography that offer theoretical insights into how everyday practice work has been the important survey method in CHI⁄CSCW community. Ethnomethodological understandings of work and investigations of work settings has been used as a useful resource for developing new technology for the system designer of CHI⁄CSCW. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of traditional relationship between system designer and ethnomethodologist in CHI⁄CSCW, and is to propose a new relationship. Graham Button and Paul Dourish presented three complementary ways of integrating ethnomethodology and system design: (a) learning from the ethnomethodologist, (b) learning from the ethnomethodological accounts, (c) learning from ethnomethodology. They pointed out many problems that is relationship between designer and ethnomethodologist in their discussion. This paper's final aim is to order and to consider their problems. Then, I review the traditional cooperative work model between designer and ethnomethodologist, and discuss the development one.
Most of the existing interactive art or entertainment systems consist of the following three steps: (1) the system's prompting the action of the participant, (2) action of the participant, and (3) response of the system. They do not presuppose these successive processes are performed continuously and repeatedly, and they are designed to express the concept of the work in each interaction. The opposite approach is to transmit the concept of the work in a continuous and repeated experience. The authors propose ”Adjustive Media” as a type of work based on this approach. Adjustive Media has a spiral model with feedback. When participants experience the work repeatedly, they can recognize the difference of results between each interaction, and they can understand more closely the intent of the designer. This paper will propose 3 design processes for Adjustive Media as design method, and will introduce the prototypes of Adjustive Media.
One important goal of design is for people to know how to use something unfamiliar. There are two design issues involved. The first is to give the product or service shape. The second is to shape the activities that will emerge as social artifacts when people use the product or service. How do designers organize these activities as spaces for people? What are the design challenges? What are the forms of activity? How are they given shape? This paper presents a framework for museum learning involving two complementary aspects of design: physical, functional artifacts and the activities that develop as social artifacts from their use. It then discusses characteristics of the creative process when designing to shape the unknown.
This article discusses how creativity appears in the composition of a painting concerning Tawaraya Sotatsu's masterpiece ‘Gods of Wind and Thunder’done in the 17th century in Edo period from viewpoint of the design thinking. The design thinking is defined as the spiral flow of dynamic idea, repeating generation of the concept and restructuring of the composition toward composing a desirable figure as a design solution. Early in the 17th century in Edo period when the painting confronted with a certain state of blockage, Sotatsu adopted the method for extracting pictorial elements from predecessors' works without making original figures. It can be thought that Sotatsu regarded creativity as making novel implication, not as making new figures. Analyzing the work, it is confirmed that novel implication appears by making the ambiguity of denying and maintaining the meaning as Gods of Wind and Thunder in hierarchy. Sotatsu's artistic policy stemmed from pursuit of the ideal category of design thinking. Thus, Sotatsu's composition is located on the development of accomplishments such as Noh performance and tea ceremony originated from Zen Buddhism in Japan at the early modern age. In the main discourse the author claims that the fundamental of the design thinking is Endo-exo circulation which is the principle of life, evolution and cognition.
We have proposed and developed a squid-like robot “IKABO” for Hakodate sightseeing promotion. We have designed not only the robot itself (hardware and software) but also intellectual production system, education system and local contribution system in Hakodate. We think the robot can be a new communication tool to connect Hakodate with the world.
In this paper, we report a construction toy which induces users to recognize the relationship between structures and textures in the three-dimensional (3D) object design. The toy consists of interlocking plastic bricks with textures of geometric patterns that cause visual illusions. The illusions appear more clearly when the blocks with the same texture is assembled and connected. Also, it is demonstrated that the illusions are perceived only within a certain view-angle range to produce appropriate retinal image. Therefore, the toy allows users (i) to make special structures consisting of several types of local structures which induce the illusory perception, and (ii) to consider the range of appropriate viewpoints, where the visual illusions on the surface and the 3D structure cooperatively make the created object look interesting. The validity of this construction toy was confirmed in our workshops during which a wide range of users from children to adults made 3D objects using the toy. It was also demonstrated that participants around ten years old or older could consider and adopt the advantage of illusory textures to construct interesting 3D objects.
Everyone has some experiences of finding innovative ideas while explaining our familiar things. In the present study, we investigate the effects of explanation activities on creative idea generation. Basic design of our experiment comes from Finke's creative cognition approach. In our experiment, in Phase 1, the participants were required to design furniture from given parts with pencil and paper. The products designed in this phase were called pre-products. In Phase 2, the participants explained their products in the explanation condition. In the control condition, the participants engaged in thinking about innovative furniture instead of explaining it. Last, in Phase 3, the participants were required to design innovative furniture by revising their own pre-products.The products designed in this phase were called post-products. The pre- and post-products were rated from the viewpoint of originality and practicality and categorized based on the rating.Increase of practicality from pre- to post-products was more salient in the explanation condition than increase in the control condition.This result suggests that explanation activities contribute to maintaining high practicality while generating high originality ideas.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interaction between body and environment on creative thinking. Previous studies have focused on the roots of creativity and its components.In order to clarify the cognitive mechanism of creativity, researchers used psychometric approach.Some researchers reported case studies that described the performance of outstanding artists and scientists.On the other hand, previous studies have pointed out that creativity depends on not only one's ability but also environmental factors.However, the environmental factors that the previous studies suggested were cultural factors or social factors.They did not imply physical environment. In recent studies of embodied cognition and situated cognition, it is suggested that complex behavior does not necessarily emerge from complex mechanism. The complex behavior may be explained by simple sensor motor coordination.It is considered that human behavior including creative thought is no exception.This paper hypothesizes that creative thought depends on the interaction between the thinker's body and physical environment in the problem situation. To this end, author employed the revised “Unusual Uses Test”, which is a kind of creativity test.This test is different from the original version because of the object that participants use.In the original version, participants propose to use a brick in as many ways as possible.In the revised version, participants were provided one of the two different sizes of plastic plates (12cm × 12cm or 14cm × 14cm or 21cm × 21cm) and were asked to propose ways to use the plastic board.Then, the size of the participants' hands were measured. The results of the experiment indicate that the size of the hands of participants' who proposed creative ideas was different in response to the size of the given object.This suggest that creativity is affected by physical environment and the thinkers' body.
Previous studies suggest, contrary to our naive understanding that ideas for innovation are generated by supply-side such as product developers, that the ideas can be actually generated by consumers, especially the users called “early adopters” who keep some distance from product developers in product adoption and knowledge. This research tested, through two experiments for idea generation, which was more important to idea generation for innovation; information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, or individual cognitive feature, i.e. innovator or early adopter. One experiment was conducted with general consumers, taking as an example idea generation for new products and services related to information technology, and the other was done with R&D members in a real company. The results suggest that information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, was important to generation of creative ideas for innovation and, at the same time, that it was early adopters rather than innovators who could make effective use of the information in the idea generation: This is considered to call for a rethink of “sticky information hypothesis” by von Hippel (1994), which claims the dominant role of information in innovation. This research also suggests, through an additional experiment for information retrieval, that tendencies of innovators to avoid communication with people other than innovators and to think much of function and spec that a product has may degrade their performance in creative idea generation.
Using the idea generation model, which encompasses the information selection process, we examined whether the provision of diverse primary information can facilitate creative idea generation. In Experiment 1, 35 students from the University of Amsterdam were asked to generate two ideas individually by using the scanning material provided. We found that the diversity of the primary information did not seem to influence the quality of ideas. Further, the participants tended to select articles that had one or more topic words in common, and the diversity of the information used to generate ideas, that is, secondary information, was reduced even though the primary information was more diverse. In addition, the results revealed that the more diverse the secondary information was, the higher the validity and consistency of the ideas with the articles were. In Experiment 2, 24 undergraduates from MIT were asked to engage in the same task as that in Experiment 1. In the more diverse primary information condition, the participants were provided with articles that had few topic words in common. The results showed that the participants in the more diverse primary information condition tended to maintain the diversity of the secondary information when selecting it. However, the highly diverse secondary information disrupted the generation of novel and useful ideas. On the basis of the results, we discussed how creative idea generation can be facilitated by using diverse information.
In this paper, we proposed a methodology to estimate cognitive function for action decisions in children by evaluating their behavior using a computational model for action decisions. First, we recorded the behavior of children while they were playing an immediate behavior-decision TV-game of “oni-gokko&rdquo. Then, we compared the recorded behavior with that of the computational model and adjusted its parameters so that the model behavior resembled that of the children. After adjusting, the model successfully reproduced more than half of the children's behavior. By observing the tendency of the model's parameter change from three to five years old, we found that the children's internal process changed: they changed their way of attention allocation to outer world objects and started to decide their action based on the objects in the wider area with deeper information processing. The results indicate that the children's action decision process, which is difficult to evaluate from merely the behavior recording, can be estimated more precisely by a computational model of their cognitive process.
In comprehending a meaning of a sentence, the sentence processor has to determine the relationship between case-marked noun phrases and verbs. Several studies claim that the sentence processor performs that decision process before the input of the verb by using some available information such as case markers. In Japanese, two kinds of case markers are specified for each verb which case marker is assigned to an object NP -- one is a dative case marker (-ni), and the other is an accusative case marker (-o). This paper investigates the effects of the case marker information when the sentence processor predicts following elements to appear. Results of ERP experiments show two findings: (1) the dative marker and the accusative marker make the sentence processor predict different elements in each; an accusative-marked NP and verb are predicted by former and only verb is predicted by latter, (2) only dative or accusative case marker affects the prediction of following input, independent of a nominative case marker (-ga).
This study investigated the effects of domain-specific geographical and meteorological knowledges and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps. Thirty participants with low meteorological knowledge and 16 with high knowledge, were both administered tests of geographical and meteorological knowledges, four kinds of visual-spatial abilities, and the task of weather map comprehension. The results indicated that the participants having high meteorological knowledge generally showed better performance at both of the meteorological test and the task of weather map comprehension than participants having low knowledge. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the total score and the basic-level score of the task of weather map comprehension were explained by the meteorological knowledge about 46% and 31%, respectively. Additionally flexibility of closure as the one of the general visual-spatial abilities, together with the meteorological knowledge, contributed 58% to the advanced-level score of the task of weather map comprehension. For the low knowledge participants, speed of closure was significantly important to resolve the task of weather map comprehension. It is suggested that the meteorological knowledge is crucially important, and the flexibility of closure may aid, for the comprehension of simple weather map.