Health Evaluation and Promotion
Online ISSN : 1884-4103
Print ISSN : 1347-0086
ISSN-L : 1347-0086
Volume 39 , Issue 4
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
Original Articles
  • Yasuhiro NISHIZAKI, Ichiro KUWAHIRA, Akira KUBO, Ryuzaburo TANINO, Nao ...
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 519-529
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
    Objectives In June 2006, the Tokai University Tokyo Hospital initiated anti-aging health check-ups. To collect data to confirm the validity of establishing anti-aging health check-ups, we carried out a questionnaire survey on the recipients of a general health check-up at our hospital to assess their awareness of health and the degree of awareness and interest in anti-aging medicine as well as anti-aging health check-ups.
    Subjects and methods This study examined 516 subjects (341 males and 175 females). The questionnaire survey was conducted by means of closed questions, and the respondents were requested to choose one or multiple answers from multiple choices. The questions were prepared considering the contents of behavior modification. The first eight questions consisted of four questions about health control at present and four questions about awareness of health and of anti-aging. To conduct the chi-square test, two elements were included among the choices of these eight questions. The last four questions contained specific contents and concerned matters that are necessary for explaining anti-aging health check-ups. Similar to a general questionnaire survey, discussions took place according to the order and difference concerning those questions.
    Results The target research population was at the maintenance stage of behavior modification in terms of interest to regular health check-up. Respondents were receiving general health check-ups for the purpose of daily health control rather than for achieving long life. Many of them felt that exercise is necessary and wish to start doing exercise. They also have knowledge of supplements and vitamins as well as a desire to use them. However, relatively few recipients were at the implementation stage; many were at the preparation stage of behavior modification. Many people already knew about metabolic syndrome and lifestyle related diseases and wished to avoid these conditions. Many people were at the stage of interest rather than the preparation stage; however, 1.6% of respondents were at the stage of indifference. The awareness of and interest in anti-aging medicine were very high and many people were at the stage of interest and the preparation stage rather than the indifference stage. Relatively many people understood anti-aging health check-ups and their cost.
    Conclusions The awareness of and interest in anti-aging medicine were very high, suggesting that a majority of people are currently at the interest or preparation stage but wish to move on to the next stage in future. The results of this survey indicated that it is appropriate to start offering the anti-aging check-ups. Many of the respondents seemed to be at the interest or preparation stage of behavior modification in terms of supplements and vitamins use, showing the importance of giving them proper guidance.
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  • Ji-ping REN, Dong-ning CHEN, Sheng-hua WANG, Xiao-qian HAN, Rong LIANG ...
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 530-534
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
    Objectives To evaluate the blood lipid and glucose situation of medical staff at a Beijing Class A Grade III Hospital, and to provide further suggestions on related intervention measures.
    Methods Stratified analysis was performed of blood lipids and glucose in medical staff at a Beijing Class A Grade III Hospital who received annual check-ups in the Medical Examination Center of Beijing Tongren Hospital in 2009 and 2010.
    Results In 2010, as compared with 2009, significantly increased rates of marginally elevated total cholesterol and diabetes were noted in female medical staff, and abnormal HDL rates for both female and male medical staff were significantly higher (p < 0.05). The borderline-abnormal rate and rate of elevation in the blood lipids profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides), the rate of impaired fasting blood glucose, and the incidence of diabetes all increased with age, and were more significant in male than in female staff. Compared with the Chinese national average blood lipid level, the results for the medical staff in all age groups were significantly higher (p < 0.05), although there were no significant differences for HDL in the 18-44 age group of male medical staff or for triglycerides in the 45-59 age group of female medical staff (p > 0.05). As compared with the 2002 rates of impaired fasting blood glucose and incidence of diabetes in the Chinese population over the age of 18, the rates for medical staff in the 18-45 age group were significant higher (p < 0.05).
    Conclusion The blood lipid and glucose situation of medical staff at this Beijing Class A Grade III Hospital was not optimistic. Health management of medical staff should be strengthened. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are strongly encouraged, especially for staff with borderline elevated blood lipids and impaired fasting blood glucose.
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  • Hiroyuki IMAMURA, Keiko MIYAHARA, Atsumi NAGATA, Kazuto ODA, Yoko MASU ...
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 535-539
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
    Background Much of the published data on the relationship of cigarette smoking (CS) with serum lipids and lipoproteins is based on studies of middle-aged individuals. Data on young men is rare. This study compared smokers and nonsmokers in terms of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfractions and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity among Japanese collegiate men.
    Methods Twenty-six current smokers were individually matched for age and body mass index with 26 non-smokers.
    Results The smokers smoked 12.2±5.8 (2 to 20) cigarettes per day at the time of the study and had been smoking for 3.1±1.7 (0.25 to 7.0) years. The distributions of physically active subjects and the mean values of METs·hour/week were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Smokers showed significantly higher log alcohol intake than the non-smokers. Smokers showed significantly higher HDL2-C and lower DL3-C than non-smokers. However, when the mean values were adjusted for log alcohol intake, smokers showed significantly lower HDL-C, HDL2-C, and apolipoprotein A-I than nonsmokers.
    Conclusion These results suggest that the known associations of CS with HDL-C subfractions in older adults are already apparent in young men.
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  • Akinori EBIHARA, Asuka NAGAI, Takayuki NAKANO, Gen SASAO, Tokuzen IWAM ...
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 540-544
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
    Background Smoking is known to be a serious risk factor for COPD, lung cancer and other chronic pulmonary diseases. The traditional custom in Erimo, Hokkaido is for the children to light a cigarette and hand it over to their parents whose hands were wet from fishing in 1940's. This study examined the influence of childhood passive smoke exposure with respiratory diseases.
    Aim We attempted to find the cause for severe COPD and other pulmonary diseases with early exposure to cigarette smoke. The prevalence of these diseases was analyzed in comparison with other areas in Japan.
    Methods We used results from routine medical checkup by Erimo city health division in which about 6000 residents' epidemiologic survey was performed. The statistical materials released from the Japanese government were used for comparison of each disease and mortality rate.
    Results Majority of smokers were found to be active or had passive exposure to tobacco smoke from a young age in Erimo. The housemate smoking rate was 81.0%. The mortality of chronic respiratory disease was 71.4 per 100,000 person- years, which was much higher than the national average (11.4 per 100,000 person-years). Prevalence of COPD (465.5 per 100,000 person-years) was higher than the national average (136.2 per 100,000 person-years). That of lung cancer was also very high (83.3 per 100,000 person-years).
    Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that early exposure to tobacco smoke produces chronic pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. In Japan, men's smoking rate had decreased, but the rate in women (9.1%) had steadily increased from 1989. Specifically the smoking rate in younger generation remains still high (14.3% aged 20's, 18.0% aged 30's). Further analysis of cohorts from Erimo would be a valuable indicator on the impact of smoking activities on lung health and disease.
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  • Junichi KABURAKI, Kyoko UCHIDA, Takao MATSUKI
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 545-548
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
     New criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were proposed by the ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) in 2010 to detect patients with early-stage RA. In this study, the ability of ultrasonographic assessments of the joints to discriminate individuals with RA from those without RA in health evaluation and promotion was investigated. The subjects consisted of 10 patients with morning stiffness and a positive reaction for serum rheumatoid factor. Seven patients were excluded, as they did not have joint swelling according to the newly proposed criteria. The remaining 3 patients had joint swelling and a score of over 6 according to the ACR/EULAR 2010 scoring system. Two patients had blood flow signals when examined using the power Doppler method as well as positive reactions for anti- CCP antibody and acute phase reactants. The other patient did not have a blood flow signal when examined using the power Doppler method and was diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome. Ultrasonographic assessments of the joints are useful for identifying individuals with early-stage RA in health evaluation and promotion settings.
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Review Articles
  • Yasuhiro NISHIZAKI, Akira KUBO, Ichiro KUWAHIRA, Emiko KURODA, Noriko ...
    2012 Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 549-557
    Published: 2012
    Released: October 01, 2013
     The concept of “anti-aging medicine” as a means of intervening in and controlling the aging process is a relatively new medical field. One of the major aims of anti-aging medicine is to reduce susceptibility to diseases and death caused by aging. In that sense, anti-aging medicine is a further development of “preventive medicine”, which relies on various forms of medical support to reduce or remove negative changes, both physical and mental, due to increasing age.
     The purpose of anti-aging health check-ups is to extend healthy life expectancy as well as longevity. Thus, a check-up can only be called an “anti-aging” check-up if the person undergoing it also receives proper health guidance based on the results of the examination. Tokai University Tokyo Hospital started offering anti-aging health check-ups in June 2006, since when more than 1,100 people have received one. We have confirmed clear improvements in age-related changes following guidance for a number of items.
     The ultimate target of preventive medicine is to promote health and longevity through medical intervention, such as various tests and health guidance before the occurrence of problems, or in asymptomatic periods. It is classified into primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention, depending on the timing and stage of intervention. Currently, for example, the most widely implemented health check-up imposed under administrative guidance or received voluntarily corresponds to secondary prevention aimed at “early discovery and early treatment”. It mainly involves detecting already contracted diseases and treating them. Anti-aging is a form of medicine that intervenes in the “tendency” for disease to occur as people grow older, and combats it. It positions aging itself as “a preparatory state for the occurrence of disease”, and aims to circumvent or mitigate that state before problems occur. As a result, anti-aging activity starts while the subject is healthy, or before the onset of symptoms, and has a strong characteristic of primary prevention, including behavioral goals and life principles.
     This review article explains anti-aging medicine and health check-ups from the viewpoint of a doctor who has worked in the field of preventive medicine, focusing on examination items, health guidance, problems and future prospects.
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