Objective In the present study, 23 healthy female college students presenting with a trend toward obesity having the body fat ratio of more than 25% were enrolled and asked to perform both walking and 30-second abdominal muscle exercises (raising the upper body) twice a week, whereby investigations were conduct-ed to verify whether twice-a-week periodic exercises would improve obesity of female college students. Methods The exercise intensity for walking was set at 60% of the targeted heart rate. Incidentally, the exercises last-ed for 10 weeks. On the first physical education program (before exercise) and the final day for education program (after exercise), we performed determination of body sizes, body fat, heart rate 1, 2 and 3 minutes after completion of the step test and 30-second upper body raising exercise. Result and Discussion The skin fold thickness of upper arm and scapula was decreased after exercises, together with significant decrease in body fat ratio, with lean body mass being significantly elevated. The heart rates 1, 2 and 3 minutes after completion of the step test were decreased after exercises; despite of increase in the decision index, there was no significant difference. The repetition times of the upper body raising exercises were significantly increased after exercises compared with those before exercises. According to the correlation analysis on the heart rates 1, 2 and 3 minutes after completion of the step test, and the decision indices as well as the upper body raising exercises, significant negative correlation was observed between the heart rates and the repetition times of the upper body raising exercises 3 minutes after completion of the step test following the subject exercises, while significant correlation was evidenced between the decision indices and the repetition times of the upper body rais-ing exercises. According to the above results, it has become evident that twice-a-week periodic exercises would reduce the body fat, leading to improvement of aerobic ability. Conclusion These findings suggest that twice-a-week periodic exercises are effective in improving obesity in female college students.
Three-minute ECG recording is useful for the frequent detection of arrhythmia. To examine the effectiveness of the technique, we compared the ferequency of newly detected arrythmia in a 3-minute ECG recording between subjects (n=1, 525) with symptoms or past histories of arrythmia or heart diseases who had visited the Toma Health Evaluation and Promotion Center and randomly selected normal controls (n=363) . All participants first underwent a regular ECG recording, and then a 3-minute recoiling. A regular ECG showed 372 subjects to have arrhythmia (premature contraction, atrial fibrillation, or WPWsyndrome) and/or atrioventricular block. Of the remaining 1, 153 subjects without arrhythmia on the ECG at rest, the 3-minute recording detected arrythmia, such as supraventricular premature contraction and/or ventricular premature contraction, in 102 subjects. Detection of arrhythmia was more frequent in the subjects than in normal controls (8.8% vs. 1.7%, p<0.05) . Premature contraction was most frequently found in the 471 subjects for whom a past history was available, with 370 having a history of premature contraction. The three-minute recording detected arrhythmia more frequently in the subjects with a psat history of premature contraction than in normal controls (11.1% vs. 1.7%, p<0.05) . Palpitation was most frequent symptom found in the 750 subjects with previous symptoms, with 316 complaining of palpitation. Newly detected arrythmia (supraventricular premature contraction or ventricular premature contraction) was more frequently detected in the subjects with palpitation than in the controls (10.4% vs. 1.7% p<0.05) . In conclusion, a 3-minute ECG recording seems to be useful for detecting premature contractions in subjects with palpitation and/ or a past history of premature contractions, even if arrythmia is not shown on a regular ECG recording at rest.
We performed abdominal ultrasonography, blood biochemistry, and a questionnaire survey on the medical history and present illness in 11, 260 subjects ranging in age from 30 to 59 years among adults who consulted the Health Science Center in our hospital. We statistically compared fatty liver and high brightness pancreas on abdominal ultrasonography to items associated with lifestyle-related diseases, and investigated the significance of abdominal ultrasonography as an index of lifestyle-related diseases. We scored fatty liver and high brightness pancreas diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography, and tried quantitative assessment of them. As degree of fatty liver became severe from moderate, moderate from mild, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, which was life-style, related diseases, and BMI increased. As degree of high brightness pancreas became severe from mild, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, which was life-style, related diseases, age and BMI increased. Subjects were classified between four groups by presence of fatty liver and high brightness pancreas. The biochemistry measurements related to liver functions (AST, ALT, or γ-GTP) were significant higher in persons with fatty liver without high brightness pancreas than in those with high brightness pancreas without fatty liver. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia were increased in order of fatty liver (-) high brightness pancreas (-), fatty liver (-) high brightness pancreas (+), fatty liver (+) high brightness pancreas (-), fatty liver (+) high brightness pancreas (+) . As a result, fatty liver may be a more important index of lifestyle-related diseases than high brightness pancreas. Fatty liver and high brightness pancreas in adults are closely associated with lifestyle-related diseases. It may be important to evaluate these parameters using abdominal ultrasonography at a medical checkup. In particular, scoring fatty liver and high brightness pancreas for quantitative evaluation was useful, since these parameters were correlated with the severity of lifestyle-related diseases.
Young female students were divided into two groups ; normal students (normal group) and students with cold constitution (cold group) . The cold group was further divided into two groups ; weak and severe cold groups. We studied the relationships among the electrocardiogram, body profiles, and the severity of the cold constitution in these groups. The body weight, body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat rate, body fat weight in the cold group were significantly low, compared with those in the normal group. Among two cold groups (weak and severe), these data were low in proportion to the severity of cold constitution. The R-R interval and QT interval of the electrocardiogram were significantly prolonged in the cold group, dependent on the severity of the disease. The QT intervals (QTc) corrected by preceding R-R interval in the cold group were similar to those in the normal group. These findings show a significantly positive relation among the cold constitution, slender figure, and bradycardia.
We investigated the relation between prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking habit by occupation. The subjects were 8, 659 male persons who took human dry dock for the period of 1997-2001. These subjects were divided into seven occupational groups as follows: transportation-related occupations: sales: executives: production and labor: specialty and technology: clerical work: other occupations, and prevalence of COPD and smoking rate calculated. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in one second/slow vital capacity≤70%. The prevalence and smoking rate showed significant difference among the occupations (prevalence: p<0.05: smoking rate: p< 0.01) . Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence and smoking rate of subjects who corresponded into average±standard deviation of age in order to exclude the age-factor. From this investigation, smoking rate was correlated with prevalence (γ=0.83, p<0.05) . The prevalence in each occupation was 5.3% in transportation-related occupations, 4.6% in sales, 4.1% in executives, 3.3% in production and labor, 3.3% in specialty and technology, 3.3% in other occupations, and 3.2% in clerical work, respectively. These results suggest that the prevalence of COPD and smoking habit are different among the occupation, and the occupation of high smoking rate shows high prevalence. Furthermore, prevalence and smoking rate of subjects on occupation in outside environment that included transportation-related occupations and sales were higher than those in inside environment such as clerical work. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to perform the spirometry for all persons in order to detect COPD, and it is important to manage smoking cessation, especially, for subjects on occupation in outside environment.
In order to assess the incidence and cardiovascular risk status in white coat hypertension (WCH), we conducted a cross sectional study among subjects aged 30 to 65 who received screening examination. In 42 subject with normal casual blood pressure (CBP) (Control group: age 41±9), and 97 subjects with CBP≥140/90 mmHg (HBP group: age 46+11), 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), metabolic risk factors, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAT-I) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode UCG was measured in HBP group. We defined mean+l standard deviation of average 24-hour recordings from ABPM (24-ABPM) in Control group (128/80 mmHg) as an upper normal value. In 42 subjects of HBP group 24-ABPM was within normal range (WCH group) and remaining subjects were classified Hypertension group (n=55) . Age was not different among Control. CBP of WCH (140±12/89±6.9 mmHg) and Hypertension groups (141±10/92±7.2 mmHg) was higher than Control group (111±14/70±8.4 mmHg) . 24-ABPM in Control group (118±9.1 mmHg) and in WCH group (120, ± 4.6/72±3 .8 mmHg) and they were lower than that of Hypertension group (135±8.9/82 ± 6.0 mmHg) . LVMI of WCH group was tended to be smaller than that of Hypertension group. As compared with Control group, body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, fasting glucose and HbA1c were higher in Hypertension group. HDL-cholesterol was lower and uric acid as well as HbA1c was higher in WCH group. Fibrinogen, PAT-I and BNP were not different among groups. These data suggest that WCH is common among health screening examination and ABP should be considered if WCH is suspected. Since WCH is associated with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, proper life style modification should also be considered.
In the midst of increase tendency of aged population, prevention of life-style-relating disorders is a great social concern. Chemistry and blood tests have been applied to find, prevent and control the disorders. One of common testing ways to detect the disorder is to use automated analyzers because of test simplicity and rapidity. CRP is commonly used for detect severity of acute inflammation. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is able to determine using whole blood anti-coagulated with EDTA in 10 minutes. The test will be one of best ways to find occult chronic disorders in the aged since many of reports revealed its clinical utility, different from CRP assay.