Since the concept of Sport for All was born in the late 1960s, a half century has passed. Sport has become an important human culture which possesses a variety of values and roles in human life and society. The purpose of this study is to examine the international trends in the 21st century by trend analyses of international bodies and content analyses of international congresses on Sport for All. The content analyses of the international bodies on Sport for All in the world including IANOS, IOC Sport for All Commission, TAFISA, and ASFAA and international congresses on Sport for All are conducted by using such secondary data as programs, proceedings, articles, websites, and so on. Sport for All has been challenging the Olympic movement with emphasizing democratization of sport and traditional sport system. Sport for All movement also has been aimed to provide equal opportunities for every individual regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, fitness level, and socio-economic status. In the 21st century, international Sport for All organizations have been integrated to TAFISA (The Association for International Sport for All) and regional associations under the TAFISA. A content analysis of the topics in the international congresses indicates that Sport for All has received significant values and roles in the context of community development, social integration, peace and development, and social integration in society.
The purpose of this study was to determine if personality fit between a sporting event and main sponsor effects the sponsorship outcomes of consumer's attitudes toward sponsor and purchase intentions using the concept of brand personality. Data were collected from 250 spectators at the HP JAPAN WOMEN'S OPEN TENNIS 2010 in Osaka. The data analyzed using descriptive statistics, principle component analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that personality fit dimensions were classified into four factors: (1) Sincerity / Sophistication, (2) Competence, (3) Excitement, and (4) Ruggedness. Next, Excitement and Ruggedness had a positive effect on the attitude toward sponsor. Moreover, attitude toward sponsor was an important predictor of purchase intentions. However, Sincerity / Sophistication and Competence had not directly influenced on the dependent variables. The finding suggests that sport markers should make the most of personality fit to marketing strategy, it can take on a high level of attitude toward sponsor. Future research and managerial implications were also discussed.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a care prevention program on multiple domains of self-efficacy in frail elderly people with and without pain. Method: Subjects were 51 frail elderly people with an average age of 79.1±5.6 years (14 males and 32 females) who did not have dementia, and who were enrolled in the long term care insurance (LTCI) program. A self-reporting questionnaire was administered to participants before and after the 3-month community care prevention exercise program for improving body functions. Demographics, perceived pain, exercise habit, and fall experience were assessed in this study. Three self-efficacy measures [the self-efficacy scale regarding going out among community-dwelling elderly (SEGE), the fall prevention self-efficacy scale (FPSE), and the selfefficacy for health promotion scale (SEHP)] were also conducted. The SEHP was composed of four domains: health, exercise, diet, and mental health. Results: After the intervention, significant improvements in SEGE, SEHP, and the health and diet subscales were observed in the group without pain. Among the group with pain, significant increases in SEGE were only found among elderly people who did not reduce their pain. The existence of pain may influence the enhancement of self-efficacy.
With the evolution of game console, it has been argued that playing video games decreases the opportunity for children to engage in physical activity. However, physical interactive sports video games could be possible triggers for children to actually participate in sports. This study attempted to explore the effect of interactive sports video games on sports participation by children. Online questionnaire data was gathered from a group of parents (N=412) who had a child/children of elementary age and owned Wii Sports and/or Wii Sports Resort, a collection of interactive sports video games simulating different physical sports. The experience of about half the respondents (n=201) was that their child/children insisted on playing an actual sport because of the physical interactive sports video games. In addition, the experience of 61.7% of those respondents (n=124) was that their child/children took up a sport that was included in the video game. The respondents also recognized the positive influence of the physical interactive sports video games, when compared with general sports video games. Further analyses revealed that the probability of which the physical interactive sports video game drives children to actually play rises with the parents＇ positive attitude toward and experience in a particular sport. The study suggested the probability that the participation process in a sport by children is influenced by not only traditional agents of socialization into sports such as their parents but also their interactive sports video games.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention to increase physical activity in the general population. We designed a non-randomized cluster trial using an intervention area (Nagaizumi, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan) and a control area (X city, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan). A total of 6,400 residents (3,200 in each area), aged 30–74 years, were randomly selected to participate in the evaluation. The participants answered a mail survey in 2013, and we plan to do follow-up survey from 2014 to 2018. The intervention program in this project consisted of (1) improving sport and exercise facilities, (2) introducing a healthy mileage program as an incentive, (3) human resource development for health promotion, and (4) a mass media campaign. The outcome variables included physical activity, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF), intermediate factors related to physical activity (e.g., information resources about physical activity, opportunity for physical activity and exercise, perceived environment related to physical activity, and practical motivation for physical activity), and participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, education level). The data from the 842 participants in the intervention area and 863 participants in the control area were analyzed in relation to their baseline levels. The Nagaizumi participants reported more opportunity and a better perceived environment for physical activity than those in control area participants. However, the Nagaizumi participants showed a lower rate of people meeting the standard criteria for physical activity than the control area participants. Surveys to assess the intervention were planned to be conducted at one year and three years after the baseline survey.