Now, J-league has problems which increase deficit teams and decrease attendance, because the global economic crisis and The Great East Japan Earthquake. In contrast, Bundesliga in Germany has been growing in recent years in spite of European debt crisis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factor which Bundesliga has been growing in recent years. The method of this study is literature searching. The main results were as the following. (1)In recent year, Bundesliga is growing in attendance, performance, and revenue. (2)The factor of increasing attendance is that makes safety measure and renewal stadiums. In addition, the ticket of Bundesliga is more reasonable than other major football league. (3)The factor of improving performance is that makes the 390 youth centers and obligate all clubs to have youth academy and extinguish the foreigner category. (4)The factor of increasing revenue is stable management because Bundesliga has club license rule and ban one owner.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the lifestyle of mountain climbers by comparing lifestyles of middle–age female mountain climbers belonging to the Japan Alpine Federation (n=41, age=53.8∓5.0yr) and a control group of women who did not regularly perform any exercise (n=34, age=56.5∓5.4yr). By serving the participants a survey, we collected and date on anthropometric informatics, exercise customs, dietary habits, and lifestyle issues. The study yielded the following four results: •The BMI, abdominal girth, and body fat percentage were significantly lower in the mountain climbers than the control group. •M ountain climber＇s length of walking time in a day is longer than control group. (χ2=20.899,p¬<0.001) • Smoking, Alcohol intake, and sleep patterns were not similar between mountain climbers and the control group. •Mountain climbers had better eating habits than the control group. These results showed that mountain climbers have healthier exercise and eating habits than the control group. As a result mountain climbers keep appropriate lifestyle for mountain climbing.
In September 7, 2013, Tokyo has been chosen to host the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic games. In order to host the event, MEXT and related sport associations have been developing the sport environments such as to establish new sport facilities for top athletes. However, little attention has been given to conduct the development of sport environments and facilities for Paralympic athletes. Therefore, this report investigated the four following examples by focusing on the relationship between Canadian disabled associations and base facilities: (a) Sport Canada in Ottawa, (b) Canadian Paralympic Committee in Ottawa, (c) Canadian Sport Institute Ontario Ontario in Toronto, and (d) Abilities Centre in Toronto. On the basis of the results, we found that Canadian disabled associations and base facilities have been well-developed sport environments for Paralympic athletes compared with Japan. In particular, Canada has been conducting strategies to improve social inclusion between abled person and disabled person through interviews and facilities tours. The findings suggest that Japanese government should adapt strategies of social inclusion based on Canada and need to establish cooperative shared facilities for Paralympic athletes and disabled person.