生涯スポーツ学研究
Online ISSN : 2187-2392
Print ISSN : 1348-8619
9 巻 , 1-2 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
特別寄稿
  • ハギンズ マイク
    2013 年 9 巻 1-2 号 p. 1-10
    発行日: 2013/03/31
    公開日: 2013/09/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    2000年代に入り,世界の新自由主義は各国内,国家間に大きな格差拡大をもたらしている.それは福祉国家でのスポーツ・フォー・オールの停滞をもたらし,またその政策を持たない開発途上国ではスポーツ振興のいっそうの停滞をもたらしている.
    現在世界中で特に青少年のスポーツ離れが危惧されている.そうした危惧を払拭するために,IOCは2010年に「Youth Olympic Games」を開催し,青少年へのスポーツ普及策を採り始めた.
    各国のスポーツ政策が低調化するなか,イギリス(ここでは特にイングランドを取り上げる)は2000年代に入って,空前絶後ともいわれる国民スポーツ普及政策を採択し,かなりの予算を伴いながら推進されてきた.それは学校スポーツ,地域スポーツそしてトップスポーツのそれぞれにおいて「世界最高のスポーツ体制」を目指した.地域スポーツでは100万人の新たなスポーツ参加者を目指している.そのためのスポーツ施設,スポーツ指導者の確保も重要だが,いったい誰が主体となってどのようにその任務を遂行するのか.それは各スポーツ連盟であり,その傘下にある地域のスポーツクラブである.1950年代以降のドイツでは,スポーツ・フォー・オール政策の内容として「ゴールデンプラン」や「第2の道」そして「トリム運動」を推進し,国家的援助の下に,その受け皿は地域のクラブの拡大とその多種目化(総合型)へ進化(深化)することによって達成した.しかし単一種目の多いイギリスではそうした多種目化は志向せず,またクラブ自体が伝統と階層性を維持して,多くの新規参加者を歓迎しない雰囲気も強い.したがって,100万人増加策も容易ではない.そうしたクラブでの多様な意見も紹介されている.
原著論文
  • 竹内 亮, 久保田 晃生, 髙田 和子, 太田 壽城
    2013 年 9 巻 1-2 号 p. 11-18
    発行日: 2013/03/31
    公開日: 2013/09/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the frequency of physical activity and social capital and changes in quality of life (QOL) in elderly residents. Subjects were randomly selected from elderly residents in Shizuoka prefecture. A total of 1,930 residents participated. A baseline survey (2005) was carried out with a questionnaire that assessed physical activity, social capital and QOL. Frequency of physical activity and social capital (going out walking, other forms of exercise and chores such as housework, paid employment, volunteer activity and educational activity) were measured in a baseline survey. Scores for QOL outcomes (satisfaction with health, independence, sense of well-being and behavioral competence) reported in the baseline survey were compared with those reported in a follow-up survey (2008) and evaluated for changes. We applied logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of QOL changes (independent variable) on the frequency of physical activity and social capital (dependent variables).
    Results were as follows:
    1) QOL outcomes (satisfaction with health, independence and behavioral competence) were significantly associated with frequency of educational activity.
    2) QOL outcomes (independence, sense of well-being and behavioral competence) were significantly associated with frequency of exercise.
    These results suggest that appropriate frequency of physical activity and social capital can improve QOL.
  • 上代 圭子, 野川 春夫
    2013 年 9 巻 1-2 号 p. 19-31
    発行日: 2013/03/31
    公開日: 2013/09/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    In studying retired professional athletes in Japan, the conditions faced by football players have been comparatively worse than those for professional athletes in other sports. The average retirement age for a Japanese professional football player is about 26 years old. The J.League has not offered any special pension benefits and retirement plans since its inauguration. Therefore, a J.League player will have more difficulties upon retirement with no guaranteed income.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the career process of former Japanese professional football players who were subject to both voluntary and involuntary retirement and to verify the usefulness of the Role Exit Model for these players. This research study is a followup survey of our previous empirical study (1999). The sample size for the former professional football players was 32. Who participated in the previous study (1999). The research method and procedure, as well as analytical methods were all the same as in the 1999 study. The research methods and procedures of this study were identical to the study of Drahota & Eitzen (1998).On the basis of a series of semi-structured interviews, the following conclusions were drawn;
    (1) Most Japanese former football players from the early generation of the J.League, faced their turning point involuntarily, but were willing to take up the second career voluntarily. Many of them stayed in the football circle. The role residual of "Ex" identity appeared to last a long time for most of them. They have not completely lost their identity as a professional football player; in other words, they have not achieved "Role Exit" from the professional football player completely.
    (2) The Role Exit Model of Drahota & Eitzen (1998) should be modified in the context of the Japanese former football players. Because they have not lost their "Ex" identity completely, this model should be named "Semi Role Exit Model".
研究資料
  • 前田 和範, 冨山 浩三, 吉倉 秀和
    2013 年 9 巻 1-2 号 p. 33-42
    発行日: 2013/03/31
    公開日: 2013/09/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristic traits of spectators of newly formed teams in professional sporting leagues. Subjects of this study were spectators at a pre-season match on August 13, 2011 played by Hyogo Prefecture's first pro basketball team, the Hyogo Storks. This game was the Storks first game to which admission was charged. The number of valid responses totaled 302 (97.4%). In order to identify the characteristics of the spectators, we used a cluster analysis using the Push-Pull factors set out by Yoon & Uysal (2005) to obtain a segmentation of the spectators. As a result, we categorized the spectators into four clusters; "spectators who had come to enjoy the game", "spectators who were interested in watching the Storks' first game", "spectators who had a secondary motivation to see the game" and "Hyogo Storks fans". The study revealed that it is possible to increase spectator satisfaction by providing more attractions for a fun day out with respect to spectators who had come to enjoy the game and by creating appeal for enjoying a new experience for spectators who were interested in watching the Storks' first game and Storks fans, who displayed the trait of being innovators. It also revealed that spectator satisfaction could be increased by providing more attractions for the children of spectators who had a secondary motivation to see the game.
短報
日本生涯スポーツ学会 第14回大会報告
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