The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the frequency of physical activity and social capital and changes in quality of life (QOL) in elderly residents. Subjects were randomly selected from elderly residents in Shizuoka prefecture. A total of 1,930 residents participated. A baseline survey (2005) was carried out with a questionnaire that assessed physical activity, social capital and QOL. Frequency of physical activity and social capital (going out walking, other forms of exercise and chores such as housework, paid employment, volunteer activity and educational activity) were measured in a baseline survey. Scores for QOL outcomes (satisfaction with health, independence, sense of well-being and behavioral competence) reported in the baseline survey were compared with those reported in a follow-up survey (2008) and evaluated for changes. We applied logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of QOL changes (independent variable) on the frequency of physical activity and social capital (dependent variables).
Results were as follows:
1) QOL outcomes (satisfaction with health, independence and behavioral competence) were significantly associated with frequency of educational activity.
2) QOL outcomes (independence, sense of well-being and behavioral competence) were significantly associated with frequency of exercise.
These results suggest that appropriate frequency of physical activity and social capital can improve QOL.
In studying retired professional athletes in Japan, the conditions faced by football players have been comparatively worse than those for professional athletes in other sports. The average retirement age for a Japanese professional football player is about 26 years old. The J.League has not offered any special pension benefits and retirement plans since its inauguration. Therefore, a J.League player will have more difficulties upon retirement with no guaranteed income.
The purpose of this study was to determine the career process of former Japanese professional football players who were subject to both voluntary and involuntary retirement and to verify the usefulness of the Role Exit Model for these players. This research study is a followup survey of our previous empirical study (1999). The sample size for the former professional football players was 32. Who participated in the previous study (1999). The research method and procedure, as well as analytical methods were all the same as in the 1999 study. The research methods and procedures of this study were identical to the study of Drahota & Eitzen (1998).On the basis of a series of semi-structured interviews, the following conclusions were drawn;
(1) Most Japanese former football players from the early generation of the J.League, faced their turning point involuntarily, but were willing to take up the second career voluntarily. Many of them stayed in the football circle. The role residual of "Ex" identity appeared to last a long time for most of them. They have not completely lost their identity as a professional football player; in other words, they have not achieved "Role Exit" from the professional football player completely.
(2) The Role Exit Model of Drahota & Eitzen (1998) should be modified in the context of the Japanese former football players. Because they have not lost their "Ex" identity completely, this model should be named "Semi Role Exit Model".
The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristic traits of spectators of newly formed teams in professional sporting leagues. Subjects of this study were spectators at a pre-season match on August 13, 2011 played by Hyogo Prefecture's first pro basketball team, the Hyogo Storks. This game was the Storks first game to which admission was charged. The number of valid responses totaled 302 (97.4%). In order to identify the characteristics of the spectators, we used a cluster analysis using the Push-Pull factors set out by Yoon & Uysal (2005) to obtain a segmentation of the spectators. As a result, we categorized the spectators into four clusters; "spectators who had come to enjoy the game", "spectators who were interested in watching the Storks' first game", "spectators who had a secondary motivation to see the game" and "Hyogo Storks fans". The study revealed that it is possible to increase spectator satisfaction by providing more attractions for a fun day out with respect to spectators who had come to enjoy the game and by creating appeal for enjoying a new experience for spectators who were interested in watching the Storks' first game and Storks fans, who displayed the trait of being innovators. It also revealed that spectator satisfaction could be increased by providing more attractions for the children of spectators who had a secondary motivation to see the game.
近年，我が国では，スポーツ基本法の制定などが行われ，生涯スポーツを再考する時期に差し掛かっている．そこで本報告では，生涯スポーツならびにレジャー・レクリエーションと地域の関連に焦点をあてながら，カナダ・アルバータ州における観光地として有名でもあるジャスパーの取り組み，アルバータ大学の地域に根ざした研究機関であるCommunity-University Partnership for the Study of Children, Youth and Familiesの活動，さらに同大学のスポーツ施設と地域連携について概観する．以上の事例より，日本とカナダの社会状況や文化の違いを考慮する必要はあるものの，生涯スポーツ社会の実現にむけて，観光地や大学研究機関，大学スポーツ施設運用における地域との関連性についてはカナダ（アルバータ州）の事例より学ぶことが多々あることが示唆された．