Since a high frequency of physical activity has an effect on the increased health of mind and
body, indexing the frequency of activity has taken root in many exercise and sport policies. The
other it is not argued enough to indexing continuity of activity and promotion of membership in
organizations, and it is not argued about the association with exercise and sport promotion either.
The purpose of this study considered the relationship between exercise and sport promotion in
the local government and the frequency of activity, continuity of activity and membership in
organizations among local residents; these are key elements of a policy in the sport promotion plan
of city A. Questionnaires were sent to 3,000 male and female adults taken from a stratified twostage
random sampling of the basic resident register 754. As the explanatory variables were set
as basic attributes, and exercise and sports promotion, the response variables were frequency of
activity, and continuity of activity and membership in organizations were analyzed through its
type II Quantification. The results indicated both similarities and differences between frequency of
activity, continuity of activity and membership in organizations, and exercise or sport promotion
activities. However, to offer effective exercise and sport promotion to the citizen, this suggests the
need for an actual exercise and sport promotion development in response to the indicators.
Recently, as the phenomenon so-called ＂Running boom＂, the number of people who enjoy
running activities has been increasing dramatically. People usually participate in leisure activities
such as running, cycling and swimming in their free time. Therefore, it is essential to negotiate
several constraints to continue participating in those activities. The purpose of this study was
to examine the relationship between continuing leisure activities and constraints in a daily life.
In order to accomplish the goal, we examined the constraints that runners face in their daily life
to participate in an urban marathon race through the framework of intrapersonal constraints
and interpersonal constraints. An internet survey was conducted with participants of an urban
marathon race, and a total of 1124 completed responses were collected in this study. As a result
of the internet research, it was revealed that running activities become a part of their life for
experienced runners, therefore they have sufficiently managed several intrapersonal constraints,
especially physical condition, running skill and acquiring a vacation, in their daily life. In addition,
it was also revealed that there is little interpersonal constraints for all runners regardless of the
duration of running activities because it can be assumed that people who are surrounding them,
such as family, have positive attitude for running activities.
The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in outdoor recreation
constraints between Japanese adolescent proactive and reactive response groups (Jackson et al.,
1993). To do so, this study conducted a questionnaire survey of undergraduate students at Kobe
University. Based on their frequency of participation in outdoor recreation during the previous
year, as well as their outdoor recreation motivation, participants were categorized into either a
＂proactive response group＂ (n = 255) or a ＂reactive response group＂ (n = 137). A Hotelling T2-
test and follow-up t-tests were performed by using this dichotomous grouping as an independent
variable and three types of constraints as dependent variables. Results showed a significant
difference in intrapersonal constraint, but not in interpersonal and structural constraints, between
the proactive and reactive response groups. As with Ito et al.＇s (2016) findings, this result suggests
that intrapersonal constraint is the key variable that must be negotiated to promote outdoor
recreation among Japanese adolescents.
Objectives: In this study, we assessed the efficacy of International exchange project, China-Japan Exercise class that uses ICT to promote daily exercise practice.
Methods: The exercise class was carried out in Atami-city, Japan and Shanghai-city, China. The participants were 29 women (Japanese: N=14, Chinese: N=15) aged over 60 years. The exercise class was short-term from 6 week. During the three-day period of the exercise class, the participants and instructors of both countries used Skype of ICT to have international communications. Preparation exercise, physical fitness measurement, and exercise practice, were
carried out in simultaneous relay interspersed utilizing Skype. Participants each other were to exchange views of health promotion and preventive care. Behavioral science techniques, such as
setting the target of exercise activity, self-monitoring and achievement evaluation, were consisted
of exercise class to enhance exercise habits. The exercise practice situations were reported by leveraging homepage, e-mail, and FAX. The assessments were measured by the target achievement rate, average number of steps, percentage of each exercise intensity level.
Results: All of the participants were able to continue for 6 weeks. The practical rate of exercise behavior goal during the period was more than 80%. The average number of steps was: 8,424∓4,219 steps at one week after the start, 9,210∓4,420 steps during the exercise class, and 9,865 ∓4,447 steps at one week after the exercise class.
Conclusion: The exercise practices of the participants became active, and it was suggested that it was effective to promote exercises. The exercise class was an experiment that used general ICT environment, and it is a feasible exercise class.