The purpose of this research was to explain the diffusion strategy in regards to the process
of diffusion and diffusion stages of windsurfing in Japan. This descriptive study was based on the
literatures relating to marine sports and leisure articles, for the target period of 1974 to 2010. In
order to analyze the diffusion process of windsurfing in Japan, the authors attempted to employ
Rogers＇s diffusion of innovation, and analyzed 5 stages of diffusion process from the 4 aspects
such as marketability, penetrability, organization, and exposure. For the diffusion process index
of ＂marketability,＂ the number of board sales was used. For ＂penetrability,＂ trends in the number
of sales outlets were used. For ＂organization,＂ the number of registered members of each sports
association were aggregated and used as an index. For ＂exposure,＂ the number of articles relating
to windsurfing and boardsailing in magazines collected in the Ōya Soichi Bunko and in 4 national
newspapers were the main source of information in this descriptive study.
The main findings of this research study were as follows;
(1) During the introductory stage, the effective diffusion strategy was organization. The supply of
equipment became more fluid, and media exposure had strong influence during the growth stage.
During the maturity stage, continuous innovation brought a variety of equipment.
(2) The characteristics of the diffusion process in windsurfing was the shift from seasonal leisure
sports to year-round leisure sports in the maturity stage. Even in the saturation stage, the number
of registered association members appeared to increase.
(3) In order to sustain the diffusion process of windsurfing, it is necessary to utilize various media,
including social media, after the maturity stage.
(4) The ideas of five diffusion stages seemed to be suitable for clarifying the relationship between thediffusion process and the diffusion strategy of windsurfing in Japan.
(5) The correlation among 4diffusion indices appeared to be sophisticated to analyze the diffusion
process of leisure sports so that more in-depth study will be recommended.
We examined the relationship between frequency of watching baseball games and the
physical, social, and psychological characteristics among elderly people who participated in an
intervention study titled effects of spectating professional baseball at the stadium on healthrelated
outcomes in middle-aged and older adults. We used self-administered questionnaires and
surveys to determine physical, social, and psychological characteristics. During the study period, we
provided participants with free tickets to professional baseball games. We recommended that each
participant attend at least two games per month, but to avoid excessive attendance. Following the
study period, we used questionnaires to determine the characteristics associated with attendance at
professional baseball games. Whether or not a participant attended games frequently was used as
the objective variable, and other characteristics were used as explanatory variables in a stepwise
multiple regression or multiple logistic regression analysis, to determine which physical, social, and
psychological characteristics correlated with attendance frequency.
There were 57 participants in this study, with a mean age of 74 years. The mean attendance
frequency was 3.3 times per month. Attendance frequency had a significant negative correlation
with the presence of an orthopedic disorder. There was a significant positive correlation with the
frequency of attendance at social outings. There was also a significant negative correlation with
subjective happiness and a positive correlation with physical quality of life. This study showed that
elderly participants who frequently attended professional baseball games did not have orthopedic
diseases, tended to go on frequent, regular outings, had a low level of subjective happiness, and had a high physical quality of life. Further study is needed to clarify the factors correlated with attendance at sporting events by the elderly. The information can be used to provide an environment conducive to attendance by the elderly at sporting events in stadiums.
The purpose of this study was to examine sport policies for children in New Zealand using
qualitative research methods. The qualitative research methods used in this study were literature
survey, indepth interviews and participant observation. Indepth interviews were conducted to 7
staffs of Sport New Zealand, 2 staffs of Sport Wellington and 2 staffs of Sport Auckland. Participant
observation was conducted in PE classes of primary schools in Auckland and Wellington. Contents
analyses were applied to the date obtained from literature survey, indepth interviews and
Sport policies for children in New Zealand were developed by cooperation with Sport
New Zealand and Regional Sport Trusts. Sport policies for children in New Zealand were 「KIWI
SPORT」. The aims of KIWI SPORT were to 「increase participation in children, both inside and
outside of school hours」, 「increase the number of opportunities children have to participate in sport, by making opportunities accessible and available to them」 and 「develop skills in children to allow them to participate effectively in all sporting opportunities」. The important point of KIWI SPORT
was 「The Physical Literacy」. The contents of 「The physical literacy」 were 「Move」, 「Communicate」 and 「Think」. PE classes of primary schools were based on 「The Physical Literacy」. In addition,PE classes of primary schools were focused on learning programs, not consisted of competition
programs. Children learned 「Fundamental Movement Skills」 and 「Fundamental Sport Skills」. The
outcomes of KIWI SPORT were as follows; 1) 2,705,001 participants had taken part in KIWI SPORT
since2009, 2)90% of children had taken part in sport and recreation more than three hours a week.
On June 11th, 2017, the Japan Sport Agency announced the outdoor sports promotion
declaration. To promote outdoor sports in Japan, the Japan Sport Agency and local governments
have been working on the sustainable development of nature-based sport tourism. However,
the population of outdoor sports including skiing and snowboarding has decreased. In addition,
the recent populations of Tokushima and Kochi prefectures have decreased, and their semimountainous areas have faced with the decreasing populations. To explore sustainable sport tourism
development, the following four topics were addressed in this report by focusing on the Yoshino
River: (a) strategies of tourism development; (b) the state of outdoor sports; (c) the World Rafting
Championship 2017; and (d) community development through rafting. On the basis of the results,
Miyoshi City has promoted the improvement of approachable and preferable environment for
inbound tourists. The Yoshino River plays a role in providing a meeting place for potential partners
through rafting participation (e.g., Sport Konkatsu). At the World Rafting Championship 2017 Japan,
people enjoyed not only watching the rafting races, but also nature-based tourism resources by
using the service of a stamp rally and smartphone application. However, some problems (e.g., a small
number of rafting athletes, spectators＇ stands) were also identified at the sport event. Community
development through rafting tourism has contributed to employment opportunities for local
residents, the promotion of local commitment among young people, and the improvement of local
residents＇ living conditions.
Drawing on twenty years of annual aggregate data collected from activity sites across Japan,
this study analyzed trends and characteristics among people with intellectual disabilities who are
members of the Special Olympics, an organization that supports lifelong sporting activities for people with intellectual disabilities. The state of social resources related to support for sporting activities for children and adults with intellectual disabilities was also examined.
The results of the analysis identified the following characteristic trends among people with
intellectual disabilities who are members of the Special Olympics Nippon. (1) While the number of
members with intellectual disabilities increased steadily after the start of the organization＇s activities in 1994, this number has remained steady at slightly under 8,000 individuals since 2009. (2) Between 2011 and 2016 (the years for which detailed records of age exist), the proportion of boys aged 8–15 years old decreased from 19.5% to 13.6%, and of boys aged 16–21 years old from 25.1% to 22.7%. (3) In contrast, the proportion of men aged 22 years and over increased from 32.6% to 41.1%. (4) These changes are only apparent for men, with no significant increase or decrease among women.
Conversely, no particularly significant changes were apparent in recent years in relation to school
education, local sports, of relevant social welfare services.
The relative decline in new membership among young people and the stagnation of
membership even as sports are being promoted throughout society indicate that the organization
is not moving in a developmental direction. The results of this study suggest the need for more
detailed research in the future.