Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.
While lithium is known to stimulate glucose transport into skeletal muscle, the mechanisms of the increased glucose transport by lithium in skeletal muscle are not well defined yet. We excised epitrochlearis muscles from male Wistar rats and measured the transport rates of a glucose analog into lithium-, insulin-, and muscular contraction-stimulated skeletal muscle tissue and we also analyzed the levels of cell surface glucose transport 4 using a photolabeling and multicolor immunofluorescence method. In addition, we generated a cell line that stably expresses myc-tagged GLUT4 to measure the rates of GLUT4 internalization and externalization. Lithium significantly increased 2-DG glucose transport rate in skeletal muscles; however, it was significantly lower than the stimulation induced by the maximum concentration of insulin or tetanic contraction. But co-treatment of lithium with insulin or tetanic contraction increased glucose transport rate by ∼200% more than lithium alone. When skeletal muscle tissues were treated with lithium, insulin, and muscular contraction, the levels of cell surface GLUT4 protein contents were increased similarly by ∼6-fold compared with the basal levels. When insulin or lithium stimuli were maintained, the rate of GLUT4myc internalization was significantly lower, and lithium was found to suppress the internalization of GLUT4myc more strongly. The lithium-induced increase in glucose uptake of skeletal muscles appears to increase in cell surface GLUT4 levels caused by decreased internalization of GLUT4. It is concluded that co-treatment of lithium with insulin and muscular contraction had a synergistic effect on glucose transport rate in skeletal muscle.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on protein nutritional status in rats kept under constant darkness. Thirty-six 4-wk-old female rats (F344 strain) were divided into six groups. Each group was given a diet with one of three different protein levels and kept under normal light and dark cycles (7:00-19:00 light period/19:00-7:00 dark period, N group) or under constant darkness (D group) for 4 wk. The protein levels of the diets were 10%, 20%, and 30% casein. The six groups are referred to as the N10%, N20%, N30%, D10%, D20%, and D30% groups. Body weight gain was low in the D groups, and that in the D30% group was much lower than that in the N30% group. The D30% group retained less nitrogen than the N30% group. As for the amount of urinary nitrogen excreted every 4 h, the values for the D-groups were higher than those for the N-groups in the 11:00-15:00 periods, and that for the D30% group was higher than that for the N30% group in the 15:00-19:00 periods, which means that protein catabolism was higher in the D30% group. It was shown that when rats kept under constant darkness were fed a high-protein diet for 4 wk, their nitrogen retention decreased and their protein nutritional state dropped.
Dietary protein intake is critical for maintaining an optimal muscle mass, especially among older individuals. Although protein supplementation during resistance training (RT) has been shown to further augment training-induced muscle mass in older individuals, the impact of daily variations in protein intake on training-induced muscle mass has not been explored thus far. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the dietary protein and amino acid intake and RT-induced muscle hypertrophy among older individuals. Ten healthy older men (n=10; mean age=69±2 y; body weight (BW)=61.5±2.2 kg; height=1.65±0.02 m) participated in progressive RT performed 3 times/wk for 12 wk. Body composition (using DXA) and nutritional assessments (using a 3-d dietary record) were performed before and after the training period. Leg lean mass (LLM) increased significantly (15.0±0.8 vs. 15.4±0.8 kg, p<0.05) after RT, with no change in dietary nutrient intake. The average dietary protein intake was 1.62±0.11 g/kg BW/d, while essential amino acids was 600±51 mg/kg BW/d. Although the correlation between the increase in LLM and dietary protein intake was not significant, a significant correlation was found between the increase in LLM and dietary essential amino acid (EAA) intake. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between the increase in LLM and protein as well as EAA (especially leucine) intake at breakfast among subjects with suboptimal protein intake (p<0.05). Our study findings indicate that dietary protein as well as EAA intake may be significant contributing factors in muscle hypertrophic response during RT among healthy older men.
Brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) are sensitive to dietary ornithine. However, dietary ornithine does not increase brain protein synthesis in hypophysectomized rats. Because hypophysectomy may decrease the secretion of thyroid stimulated hormone (TSH), we assessed whether the regulation of brain protein synthesis was mediated by changes in the plasma concentrations of thyroid hormone and ghrelin in the 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU, thyroid inhibitor)-treated or control adult rats fed ornithine. The four experimental groups consisted of PTU-treated and control (24-wk-old) male rats given 0% or 0.7% ornithine-HCl added to a 20% casein diet. The plasma concentrations of GH and ghrelin, and the fractional rates of protein synthesis and RNA activity [g protein synthesized/(g RNA•d)] in the brains were significantly increased after treatment with the 20% casein + 0.7% ornithine compared with the 20% casein diet alone in both the PTU-treated and control groups. Ornithine supplementation to the basal diet did not affect the plasma concentration of T3. The RNA concentration (mg RNA/g protein) was not related to the fractional rate of protein synthesis in the brain regions. The results suggest that dietary ornithine likely increases the rate of brain protein synthesis in control and PTU-treated rats, and that the ornithine-induced increase in the GH concentration may stimulate mainly brain protein synthesis via ghrelin. RNA activity is at least partly related to the fractional rate of brain protein synthesis.
Recent studies have shown that dietary content affects the health of the host by changing the gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of microbiota composition with habitual diet in Japanese people. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between the fecal microbiota and habitual dietary intake of micronutrients, macronutrients and food groups in healthy young Japanese women. Analysis of fecal microbiota was performed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method, and a dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days using a weighed food record method. T-RFLP pattern analysis divided the subjects into two clusters, where cluster A group had a high relative abundance of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV, and cluster B group had a high relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillales. Cluster A group also had lower intakes of iron and vitamin K and higher intakes of mushrooms and snacks than cluster B group. Analysis of Spearman rank correlations found several significant relationships between fecal microbiota and intake of nutrients and food groups. Bifidobacterium was correlated with iron intake, and Clostridium cluster XI was negatively correlated with intakes of cholesterol and eggs. These results suggest that dietary habits may strongly affect Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium abundance in the gut microbiota of young Japanese women. This is the first study to show relationships between fecal microbiota and habitual dietary intake in Japanese people. Accumulation of results from similar studies will help to elucidate the relationships between dietary intake and diseases in Japanese people.
The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.
The browning or discoloration of cheese is often observed during long-time ripening or aging. In the present study, we identified galactose as a limiting factor for the browning, and clarified the involvement of the Maillard reaction for the discoloration. A precursor of browning of Cheddar cheese was isolated by procedures of solvent extraction and chromatography. D-Galactose and D-lactose were identified as a precursor of browning of Cheddar cheese A and B, respectively. Cheddar cheese (A, B, and C), sugar-added cheese, and nine kinds of retail cheese were stored at 4 to 70ºC for 0 to 10 d, before the L*-, a*-, and b*-values and sugar contents of each sample were measured. Cheese to which galactose was added turned brown more intensively during storage than the non-added control and the other sugar-added cheese. The more galactose was added, the more intensive the browning of the cheese appeared. The decrease in galactose correlated with the ΔL*-, Δa*-, Δb*-, and ΔE-values indicating the browning or discoloration of cheese samples. The decrease in sugars of nine kinds of retail cheese during storage also correlated with the ΔL*-, Δa*-, and ΔE-values of these cheese samples. These results clearly indicate that sugars, especially galactose, in cheese are an important factor for the browning of cheese during storage. In general, a high amount of amino acids, peptides, and proteins exists in ripe or mature cheese. Therefore, sugars, especially galactose, were considered to be the limiting factor for the Maillard reaction causing the browning of ripe or mature cheese during storage.
Seaweed has been considered an indigestible food. Fucoidan, which is found abundantly in seaweed, especially in Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku), has a high molecular weight and has been long believed to be hardly absorbed in the human digestive system due to a lack of certain digestive enzymes. We previously reported that fucoidan can be detected in serum and urine after oral intake of purified fucoidan in humans and rats. However, it is unclear whether the fucoidan in mozuku can be absorbed after digestion of mozuku. Therefore, we attempted to detect fucoidan in urine before and after mozuku intake. We determined the fucoidan concentration in urine after oral intake of Okinawa mozuku and urinary fucoidan was detected in several volunteers. In conclusion, these results suggest that fucoidan in mozuku can be absorbed after ingestion of mozuku.
We have previously reported that chicken egg white (EW) and low-allergenic EW hydrolysate (EWH) suppressed ectopic fat accumulation and improved serum glucose and insulin levels. In this study, the dietary effects of EW and EWH on glucose tolerance were investigated in different ways to clarify the effect of EW and EWH on intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetic Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda mice were divided into four groups: a low-fat and low-sucrose casein-based diet group (NL); high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) casein-based diet group (NH); HFS EW-based diet group (NE); and HFS EWH-based diet group (NEH). Mice were fed their respective diets for 8 wk. At the end of the 6th and 7th week, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were respectively conducted in experiment A. At the end of the 7th week, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was conducted in experiment B. In experiment A, the plasma glucose level was suppressed in the NE group during both OGTT and ITT, and suppressed in the NEH group during OGTT, but not during ITT. In experiment B, the plasma glucose level was similarly suppressed in the NEH group during ipGTT, but the suppressive effect was weakened compared to OGTT. Plasma insulin level was lower in the NE and NEH groups in both experiments. Fecal triacylglycerol excretion was increased in the NE and NEH groups in experiment A and liver triacylglycerol content was suppressed in the NE group in experiment B. These findings suggested that in addition to improving fat metabolism, EWH improves glucose tolerance via mechanisms related and unrelated to small intestinal function.
The AICAR responsive element binding protein (AREBP) suppresses transcription of the gluconeogenic enzyme genes in response to AICAR treatment. Moreover, overexpression of AREBP also suppresses gluconeogenic gene expressions in animals, indicating that AREBP plays an important role in gluconeogenesis. Through a combination of systematic analyses of the AREBP gene promoter and assays for DNA-protein interaction, we identified a nuclear factor involved in tissue-specific expression of AREBP. By targeting this nuclear factor, pharmacological or nutraceutical induction of AREBP gene expression is expected to reduce blood glucose levels in patient with insulin resistance.