Vitamin A is an essential nutrient necessary for human growth and development, with critical roles in vision, immune function reproduction and maintenance of epithelial cellular integrity. Inadequate intake of vitamin A places populations at risk of developing diseases associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD). VAD is highly prevalent across the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in children under 5 y and women of childbearing age. Therefore, infants and young children, pregnant women and postpartum women are commonly targeted by supplementation programs. Although, vitamin A supplementation has been shown to decrease preventable childhood diseases and deaths related to VAD, supplementation of vitamin A has been greatly misused in several countries within the EMR raising concern around the process of supplementing the target population. Countries across the EMR have reported different supplementation practices depending on the income level of the country, the availability of vitamin A and the prevalence rates of VAD. Although some countries had higher supplementation rates than others, the concern lies in the middle-income countries and their supplementation practices. Some of the countries across the region do not follow the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidelines for vitamin A supplementation for the recommended age groups. The objective of this study is to assess the vitamin A supplementation practices across the countries in the EMR, determine the gaps in the supplementation practices and the issue with supplementing to healthy populations where VAD is not a public health concern, and provide recommendations for proper vitamin A supplementation within the region.
A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in four residential areas of Tangail Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh aiming to explore the knowledge about vitamin A fortified edible oils and rice as well as the their consumption rate. A total of 400 participants were randomly selected. Data were collected through face to face interviews. Only 15.0% and 3.5% participants had knowledge about vitamin A fortified edible oils and rice respectively. Precisely vitamin A fortified edible oils knowledge level was found inferior in rural (11.7%) and slum (0%) than urban (48.3%) and semi-urban (40.0%) participants. Knowledge about vitamin A fortified rice was found higher in urban (78.6%) than rural (14.3%) and slum (0%) participants. Most of the participants received knowledge through advertisements (N=45 and N=12 for fortified oils and rice respectively). Maximum participants (62.3%) did not consume vitamin A fortified edible oils and consumption rate in rural (11.8%) and slum (10.2%) areas were poorer than urban (53.5%) and semi-urban (24.4%) areas. Consumption rate of vitamin A fortified rice was found nil in all the study areas. Lack of knowledge about vitamin A fortified rice and oils accounted solely for poor consumption. Knowledge level about vitamin A fortified edible oils and rice and consumption rate were found statistically significantly (p<0.05) with participant’s place of residences, education level and monthly income. Finally, this study indicates that the overall knowledge level and consumption rate of vitamin A fortified edible oils and rice is poor especially in rural and slum populations in Tangail Sadar Upazila.
This study aimed to examine the scale for reliability and validity of the dietary information literacy scale for competition (DILS-C) in college athletes. This cross-sectional study was performed using a self-report questionnaire for college athletes who belong to the club of the university located in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan, from October to December 2014. The final sample comprised 953 college athletes, 684 males and 269 females, aged 18 to 22 y. Following item selection by exploratory factor analysis, the scale’s reliability and validity were examined via internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, a retest for 376 athletes was conducted at about 3-wk intervals. Factor analysis of literacy measure indicated that the scale consists two sub-scales—communicative literacy and critical literacy. The Cronbach’s α coefficient assessing the internal consistency reliability was acceptable (communicative literacy=0.84, critical literacy=0.79). Excellent goodness-of-fit indices of communicative and critical literacy were obtained by confirmatory factor analysis (GFI=0.95, AGFI=0.92, CFI=0.95, RMSEA=0.08). Retest reliability was within an allowable range (communicative literacy ICC=0.52, critical literacy ICC=0.50). The present study suggested that the reliability and factorial validity were confirmed in the DILS-C in college athletes.
Several studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of alcohol consumption with established CHD risk factors and with macro-/micro-nutrient intake among Japanese people. Participants were 1,090 Japanese men and women aged 40–59 y enrolled in the INTERLIPID study, excluding former drinkers. Based on two 7-d alcohol records, participants were classified as non-drinkers (0 g/wk), light-drinkers (<100 g/wk), moderate-drinkers (100–299 g/wk), or heavy-drinkers (≥300 g/wk). Detailed macro-/micro-nutrient intake was evaluated using four in-depth 24-h dietary recalls and adjusted for total energy intake excluding alcohol. We analyzed the associations of CHD risk factors and nutrient intake with alcohol consumption. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among those with higher alcohol consumption. J-shaped relationships with alcohol consumption were observed for the proportion of current smokers, number of cigarettes smoked, and prevalence of hypertension; these risk factors were lowest among light-drinkers. Carbohydrate and total fiber intakes were lower and protein and dietary cholesterol intakes were higher among those with higher alcohol consumption. These associations were similar for men and women. Alcohol consumption was related to nutrient intake as well as established CHD risk factors. Non-drinkers were higher on some CHD risk factors than were light-drinkers. These findings may influence the J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CHD risk.
We examined the association between nutrient intake and prefrailty. Data from 815 older people (63% women) who participated in a community-based health check survey (Tarumizu Study) were analyzed. Prefrailty were defined using five parameters (exhaustion, slowness, weakness, low physical activity, and weight loss). Participants with one or more components were considered to belong to the prefrailty group. Nutrition intake was estimated from a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Among the participants, 154 men (52%) and 278 women (54%) were found to be in a status of prefrailty. In men, there were no significant associations between nutrient intake and prefrailty. In women, carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in prefrailty group. Vitamins K, B1, B2, folic acid, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper intake was significantly lower in the prefrailty group. Among the nutrients, magnesium was identified as a significant covariate of prefrailty using a stepwise regression method. In women adjusted ORs (95%CI, p value) for prefrailty in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of magnesium intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.52 (0.29–0.92, 0.024), 0.51 (0.28–0.95, 0.033), and 0.38 (0.19–0.74, 0.005), respectively, by multivariate logistic regression analysis (variates: age, body mass index, energy intake, supplement use, osteoporosis, magnesium, and protein intake). Protein intake did not related to prefrailty. Protein intake might be sufficient to prevent prefrailty in the present study. We propose magnesium to be an important micronutrient that prevents prefrailty in community-dwelling older Japanese women.
Dietary habits of middle-aged and elderly individuals affected by periodontal disease (PD) differ from those who are unaffected by it, according to previous reports. However, in young adults, there are only a few reports that show a correlation between nutrient/food intake and PD. Moreover, no report till date has assessed the correlation between dietary habits and PD using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). Therefore, we assessed this correlation using a DHQ in young adult women who are likely to develop PD. The participants were enrolled from 2 universities and included 120 female college students a mean age of 20.4 y. The participants were assessed for the presence of PD according to the community periodontal index and were divided into two groups, the PD group and the non-PD group. Their dietary habits were investigated using a DHQ and the level of difficulty in chewing food was assessed. The PD group had a significantly lower nutrient intake of minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and dietary fiber than the non-PD group. In terms of food groups, the PD group consumed significantly lesser amounts of green and yellow vegetables (GYV) than the non-PD group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the PD group had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E and GYV than the non-PD group. The PD group consumed significantly lesser amounts of hard foods than the non-PD group. In conclusion, young adult women who were evaluated for PD by a screening test had a significantly lower nutrient/food intake than those without a PD.
Collagen peptides (CPs) are bioactive molecules that have beneficial effects on bone metabolism and against joint disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CP supplementation on visceral fat mass and plasma lipid concentrations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male ddY mice were fed a normal diet or HFD for 3 wk, and assigned to N or NCP groups and to F or FCP groups, respectively. The NCP and FCP group mice were administered experimental diets containing 25 mg/g CPs for 3 wk further. During the experimental period, CP supplementation affected neither the food consumption nor the body weight of the mice. No significant differences in the plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, and cholesterol concentrations were observed among all the groups. In contrast, the weight of testicular fat mass was significantly decreased in the FCP group as compared with that in the F group. The expression levels of leptin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α genes in the adipose tissue correlated with the visceral fat mass, although these differences were not significant. These findings indicate that CPs may have a reducing effect on visceral fat content but are less effective in reducing body weight.
B-group vitamins are required in amino acid catabolism, and recent findings suggest that urine 2-oxo acids, catabolites of amino acid, could be functional biomarkers indicating the nutritional status of B-group vitamins. To clarify the relationship between B-group vitamins and urine 2-oxo acids, we investigated the effects of B-group vitamin administration on daily changes in urinary amounts of 2-oxo acids in humans. Twenty-nine young Japanese women collected 24-h urine samples for 8 d, and took B-group vitamins for 7 d beginning on the second day of urine collection. The participants were divided into three groups on the basis of the amounts of total branched-chain 2-oxo acids, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, and pyruvic acid excreted in urine. In the upper tertile, but not the middle and lower tertiles, each urine 2-oxo acid decreased from the first day of vitamin administration, and completely decreased to a normal level on the second day of administration. These results indicate that administration of B-group vitamins immediately affects 2-oxo acid metabolism in some young Japanese women. Thus, urinary 2-oxo acids could be useful and functional biomarkers for B-group vitamin status.
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of telogen effluvium (TE) and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D in the treatment of this problem in women belonging to various cities of south Punjab, Pakistan. In the present study, 40 adult women suffering from the problem of TE were included. Each woman was treated with oral vitamin D3 (200,000 IU) therapy fortnightly and a total of 6 doses were given to each patient. After 15 d of the last dose, the condition of patients was assessed clinically. The mean age of female patients was 32.2±1.5 y, 42.5% of the patients between 21–30 y of age were found to be more frequently affected with TE compared to 35% females of 31–40 y of age. Results showed significant improvement in hair growth in young (r=0.457 p<0.003) women and in those, which do not use sunscreen (r=−0.331 p<0.037) but commonly utilize milk or milk protein (r=−0.311 p<0.051). Vitamin D3 therapy resulted in the improvement of the condition in 82.5% (p<0.001) patients of TE. The use of oral vitamin D3 (200,000 IU, fortnightly) for 3 mo resulted in significant improvement in hair regrowth in the patient of TE. Results showed improvement in hair growth in young women those do not use sunscreen but commonly utilize milk or milk protein.
Estimations of individuals’ polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of the health benefits of dietary polyphenol. We developed a food frequency questionnaire for polyphenol intake (FFQ) and a short-form FFQ for polyphenol intake (SF-FFQ) for assessing the polyphenol intake of Japanese. The aim of this study was to compare the relative validity of polyphenol intake derived from the FFQ with that from the SF-FFQ, using a 4-consecutive-d dietary record (DR) as the reference. Sixty Japanese subjects aged 30–69 y completed the 4-d DR and the two FFQs regarding their polyphenol intake in November 2019. The polyphenol intake values estimated by the DR, FFQ, and SF-FFQ were 1,057±524 mg/d, 1,061±537 mg/d and 1,015±491 mg/d, respectively. No significant differences were present in the estimated polyphenol intake between the 4-d DR and both FFQs. The correlation coefficient with the DR was 0.779 for the FFQ and 0.814 for the SF-FFQ. These results indicate that the total polyphenol intake in a Japanese population were accurately estimated by the FFQ and SF-FFQ.