Japanese Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Online ISSN : 1884-5053
Print ISSN : 1340-2560
ISSN-L : 1340-2560
Current issue
Displaying 1-9 of 9 articles from this issue
Original Articles
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 110-116
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    Objective: To examine whether the frequency of eating a balanced diet including staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes is associated with eating slowly.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from “The Survey of Attitude toward Shokuiku” that was conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in 2018. The responses of 1,824 Japanese adults were collected. The participants were divided into two groups; those who ate slowly and others. After excluding responses where information was missing, the data of 1,813 participants were analyzed (analysis rate: 99.4%). The association between eating slowly and the frequency of eating a balanced diet comprising staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes was examined using Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression models.

    Results: We found that 914 (50.4%) of the participants ate slowly. Those who ate slowly were more likely to be women, have more time to spare, be more health consciousness, and eat a balanced diet including staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes more frequently, compared to those who did not eat slowly. Logistic regression model adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, time to spare and level of health consciousness also indicated that those who ate a balanced diet comprising staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes were more likely to eat slowly (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.28 [1.04, 1.57]).

    Conclusion: Even after adjusting for time to spare and level of health consciousness, eating slowly was associated with a higher frequency of eating a balanced diet including staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes.

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  • Tomoko YAMADA, Jeffrey HUFFMAN, Nobuhiro TAGUCHI, Kazuo ISHIGAMI, Toru ...
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 117-126
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    Objective: Community water fluoridation (CWF) is a highly effective public health measure for dental caries prevention that is commonly recognized by international professional organizations. Many government decisions are influenced to some extent by the level of individual choice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge, awareness, and implementation (experience) of various caries prevention methods between Australia, a developed country with a high CWF rate with little regional disparity, and Japan, where CWF is not implemented.

    Methods: A self-administered web-based survey was completed by 1,008 Japanese in Japan and 1,020 Australians in Australia. The participants’ responses were collected over a 47-day period from July 10 to August 25, 2021.

    Results: Large differences were found between Japan and Australia except for the encouragement of tooth brushing, and Japan had a high rate of tooth brushing and flossing/interdental brushing among women aged 40–64 years. In Australia, a high proportion of respondents reported that their information on CWF was obtained from dentists.

    Conclusion: This study revealed that there were differences in oral health behaviors for dental caries prevention as well as in knowledge of prevention methods and use of fluoride in Australia and Japan.

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  • Motoyoshi KUBO, Sae AKAOGI
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 127-141
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    Objective: Clarify the measurement circumstances of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in elementary and junior high schools, how these measurements help prevent heatstroke, and the advantages and problems associated with using WBGT.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study by surveying randomly selected elementary and junior high school health coordinator in the Kanto region’s Prefecture A. We analyzed data from 65 elementary and 64 junior high schools. We conducted a cross-tabulation of WBGT measurement conditions and locations according to school type. Examples of measures according to WBGT, and the advantages and disadvantages of using WBGT, which were the free-description items, were categorized after examining their meaning.

    Results: WBGT was measured in approximately 90% of both elementary and junior high schools. Many measurements were taken in schoolyards/grounds, and gymnasiums; a few were taken in classrooms and pools. Overall, 81.5% of elementary schools and 64.1% of junior high schools implemented measures according to WBGT. At temperatures of 21°C or higher, students were instructed to rehydrate and rest. Measures diversified with increasing WBGT; at temperatures of 31°C or higher, many schools suspended outdoor exercise or activities. WBGT’s advantages included that it facilitated appropriate judgment for heatstroke prevention awareness while the disadvantages included that the planned implementation of educational activities may be hindered by measures taken according to the WBGT.

    Conclusion: WBGT was measured and used in many elementary and junior high schools. However, there were some issues in its use, such as the planned implementation and adjustment of educational activities.

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Field Reports
  • Wakako TATSUTA, Erika YAMANAKA, Takayo INAYAMA
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 142-150
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    Objective: It has been reported that people with visual impairment are physically inactive. Consequently, this study aimed to examine visually impaired individuals’ efforts to participate in physical activity and the support they believe is required. Additionally, this study organized them into levels with reference to the multilevel model and considered intervention plans for each level.

    Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with ten adults with visual impairment. The information was compiled into a concise, appropriate code, and categories were created.

    Results: The innovations in physical activity participation were grouped into nine categories: six at the individual/ intrapersonal (e.g., “increasing activity intensity”), two at the interpersonal (e.g., “practicing behaviors with peers”), and one at the organizational, community, and regional level (e.g., “belonging to groups”). Support needed for participating in physical activity was grouped into 13 categories: two at the individual/intrapersonal level (e.g., “own knowledge and skills”), three at the interpersonal level (e.g., “existence of friends who invite me”), seven at the community/regional level (e.g., “facilities accessible without assistance”), and one at the public policy level (e.g., “maintenance of local roads”).

    Conclusion: To promote physical activity among people with visual impairment, it is necessary to create a network that enables the sharing of information and educational outcomes among individuals. Furthermore, it is necessary to propose specific services and guides to local organizations, such as sports clubs, to support the promotion of physical activities for people with visual impairment.

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  • Emi YOSHII, Tomomi AINUKI, Rie AKAMATSU, Tomoko HASEGAWA, Kazuhiko FUK ...
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 151-162
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    Objective: We developed a comprehensive health education material entitled, “Kenko Niko-Niko Card,” which aims to help children acquire knowledge, reflect on their daily lives through play at home and preschool or kindergarten, and improve their lifestyles. The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of the educational material for the children who are about to enter elementary school and their parents to improve their lifestyles.

    Activities: Total of 4 weeks from late February to late March 2022, program using the educational material were held for 54 children who were about to enter elementary school and their mothers. We mailed the educational materials (cards, support books, etc.) to the participants in advance, and asked them to play at home and challenge themselves to improve their lifestyles. Process evaluations using an online, unmarked, self-administered questionnaire survey were conducted once a week, for four consecutive weeks.

    Activity evaluations: The results of the evaluation showed that the materials were most utilized in the first week (98.1%), the challenge to improve their lifestyles was most engaged in the fourth week (88.9%), and the percentage of children and parents who engaged in the challenge for more than one week was 96.3%. Approximately 90% of the mothers reported that their children enjoyed playing cards (94.4%), were enthusiastic about the life improvement challenge (88.9%), and that the mothers themselves enjoyed interacting with their children in the play and challenge (90.8%). Positive comments were also obtained, such that the program provided an opportunity to improve their lifestyles.

    Conclusions: It was shown that the materials could be used to improve the lifestyles of the children and parents interested and about to enter elementary school.

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Special Articles: The introductory course on methodology for authors and reviewers in health education and promotion
  • Kenryu AOYAGI
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 166-172
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    It is increasingly common to see studies based on qualitative methods in academic journals. However, qualitative study is still not widely, or appropriately, understood. The goal of this study was to clarify the strength of qualitative study through a comparison with quantitative study. Proper use with quantitative study based on evidence level and strength of qualitative study, and complementary use of qualitative and quantitative study in mixed methods research were also explored, as was the question of what is considered “qualitative.” Qualitative study was found to be useful in exploratory studies and hypothesis-generation, as well as in specialized studies dealing with bird’s-eye or abstract views of a topic or field. One characteristic of qualitative study was shown to be its emphasis on the “existence” of elements and relationships. In contrast, quantitative study was found to be valuable in verifying/confirmatory studies and suitable for drawing conclusions about a limited scope. The quantitative approach follows a paradigm that emphasizes “numbers.” Depending on the evidence level, the study’s purpose, and the nature of the data, it is possible to enhance quality of study to choose or combine methods for valid and reliable results.

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  • Hiromitsu Ogata
    2023 Volume 31 Issue 3 Pages 173-179
    Published: August 31, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: September 17, 2023

    The problem of statistical multiplicity and methods of multiple comparisons is one of the key issues in data analysis. From the 1950s to the present, various multiple comparison methods have been developed to compare the means of multiple groups after obtaining significant results in one-way analysis of variance. In recent years, the use of complex study designs in clinical trials has made the issue of statistical multiplicity even more important. Multiple comparison is an approach used to solve the problem of statistical multiplicity, and to enhance the scientific significance of research, it is necessary to select an appropriate multiple comparison method during the stage of research planning. This paper describes the basic concept of the problem of multiplicity and outlines the features and points to consider in representative methods of multiple comparison that are often used.

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