The toxic principle of an ascomycetous fungus, Talaromyces panasenkoi, whose ethyl acetate extract was found to be lethal to mice, has been proved to be spiculisporic acid by the chemical and spectral characterization and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Spiculisporic acid was formerly isolated from Penicillium spiculisporum (Talaromyces trachyspermus), P. minioluteum, and P. purpurogenum (as P, crateriforme), but the toxic property of this metabolite has not been known. Intraperitoneal administration of spiculisporic acid causes lethal peritonitis in mice.
The isolation and characterization of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus from 79 retailed samples of traditional herbal drugs (“Jamu”) and spices collected in Indonesia are reported. The ability of 30 isolates to produce aflatoxins on defatted peanut meal was assessed. Among these isolates, three strains differ from typical A. flavus by having enormous numbers of microsclerotia (about 300μm in diameter) and are conspecific with the fifth group of aflatoxigenic A. flavus according to Hesseltine et al. in 1970. In a comparison between the Indonesian strains and the three NRRL strains as being representative of the fifth group of A. flavus, most of these atypical sclerotigenic isolates produced very high levels of aflatoxin G1. Numbers of viable fungal propagules in the traditional herbal drugs and spices in Indonesia were also measured.
We demonstrated that there were a little infection of fungi and free from aflatoxin contamination for imported miscellaneous beans in Japan. Their low levels of water activity (Aw) show the good quality to maintain under dry condition after import, mainly by handling and storing them to prevent from moisture absorption.
The experimental acute poisoning in mice induced by emestrin (EMS), secondary metabolite of Emericella striata was examined pathomorphologically. The values of LD50 toward male ICR mice weighing 20-25g at 24 and 48 hr following i.p. administration were 17.7 and 13mg/kg, respectively. The target organs of EMS were the heart, liver and lymphoid tissues. Typical central necrosis of the liver was seen in mice receiving 18mg/kg for 24 hr. Marked dilation and degeneration of the myocard and hepatocyte mitochondria were characteristic. Rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the hepatocyte was proliferated. Occasionally, intracytoplasmic inclusions with fine fibrils and ribosome-like granules accompanying RER were seen in the hepatocytes around the central veins. A large amount of cell debris of lymphocytes was also seen in the cortical layer of the thymus 24 hr following i.p. injection of EMS.
ICR mice were fed diets mixed with nivalenol (NIV)-containing moldy rice powder at final levels of NIV of 0, 6, 12 and 30 ppm throughout gestation. Purified NIV was also administered by gavage at doses of 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg on days 7-15 of gestation. Four out of five mice in the 20mg/kg group died during the dosing period. The embryotoxicity associated with maternal weight loss was observed in the two groups receiving 30 ppm and 10 mg/kg. Intrauterine growth retardation was found in the term fetuses of mice exposed to 12 ppm and 5 mg/kg. NIV had no statistically significant adverse effects on the incidence of gross, skeletal and visceral malformations.