Ex-type culture of Spicellum roseum isolated from silage in France has been known to produce some trichothecenes. As the causative agent of the pink mold damping-off disease, we isolated some strains of S. roseum from a cultivated mushroom Flammulina velutipes at Nagano, Japan. To examine whether the Japanese strains of S. roseum produce trichothecenes or not, the isolates were cultivated on rice medium and extraction was made for mycotoxin analysis. 8-Deoxy-trichothecin was accordingly detected and confirmed with GC/MS by means of EI and CI mode. However, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X and nivalenol were not detected in the extract, all of which are well known to be detected from scabby wheat.
Number of examination stated in this report is based on the period from October to September of next year. This is because the harvesting season of pistachio nuts in Iran is September. Therefore, shippig of the products starts from October. In Japan, tolerance limits of aflatoxin B1 is fixed as less than 10ppb. Inspection of pistachio nuts at the ports started in 1981. At first, 4 kg of sample was collected from 4 divided one lot(20 feet containar). In 1998, as pistachio nuts which contained high level of aflatoxin B1 was found in the local market, Ministry of Health and Welfare revised the sampling system as to collect 8 kg of sample from 8 divided parts of one lot. Number of cargo of Iranian pistachio nuts rejected at the ports has been 15-20% every year until 1996. In the period from 1997 to 1998, rejected lots was more than 30%, presumedly owing to bad weather in producting areas. It is recently observed the quality of Iranian pistachio nuts is being improved.
Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination in commercial pistachio nuts was investigated. 621 samples, collected from commercial markets in the period of 1982-1999, were tested for AFs. AF was found in 18 samples out of 621 pistachio nuts samples. The incidence was approximately 3%. The level of AFB1 ranged 0.8 to 1380 ppb. In spite of the low incidence, the level of AFB1 was high ; 72% of AFB1 positive samples were contained over the regulatory level in Japan(10 ppb). While all positive samples contained AF-B group, AF-G group was found in only one sample. All the positive samples were imported from Iran with an exception, which was imported from USA. Comparing the incidence of AF in pistachio nut in each year, the incidence wasn't constant. AF was found at only 8 years during those 18 years. The Ministry of Health of Japan orders testing all pistachio nuts for AF when they are imported. If highly-AF-contaminated pistachio nuts were completely excluded at the time, AF over the regulation level should not be found in commercial pistachio nuts. However, high level of AFB1 was sometimes found in them, because AF contamination is extremely heterogeneous. Tougher controls at import are preferred.
Distribution of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were examined in the steps from harvest to air of warehouse for final products after processing in Yazd and Kerman, Iran in 2000. A. flavus was isolated from the some of split fruits and insect-damaged fruits dropped on the growing field of the nuts, and running water and still water for washing and sorting of the nuts as well as air in the warehouse although none from the field soil. These results indicated that fungus control throughout the steps from growing to storage of the nuts was important to prevent aflatoxin contamination in Iranian pistachio nuts. One sample separated by floating process and 5 samples sorted by hand picking on basis of appearence were examined for mycological study and also for aflatoxin analysis. A. flavus were detected in both samples of all the kernels tested in the floating nuts separated by the floating and dark stained nuts sorted by hand picking. B and G aflaftoxins were detected only in the sample of stained nuts in this study. These results suggested that the hand picking by apperenece is useful for sorting to detoxify aflatoxin contamination lots of the nuts although further study is needed.
In Japan, an import amount of pistachio nuts, from the United States is increasing every year, because there is hardly contamination with aflatoxin in the pistachio nuts. On the basis of the local information, I introduce a process from the harvest of pistachio nuts to manufacture at California. As the result of manual, standard, machine harvest, machine dryness and industry-university collaboration, we can have high quality pistachio nuts with little aflatoxin contamination. So as to prevent contamination with aflatoxin, pistachio nuts need to be isolated from fungus. Therefore, it is necessary to have the consistent control system that is from farm to factory.
The distribution of Aspergillus flavus was determined in imported raw Iranian pistachio nuts. Occurrence of aflatoxin-producing strains in aflatoxin positive samples was markedly higher, whereas ratio of aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flavus in aflatoxin negative sample was relatively low. Distribution of A. flavus on shells and kernels of the nuts showed as difference among individual samples. Occurrence of aflatoxin-producing strains was examined in pistachio nuts samples collected from different geographical areas in Iran.
Aflatoxin B1 contamination was surveyed in commercial peanut butter(49 lots)and peanuts products(33 lots)in Japan during November 1970 to February 1971. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 49%(24 lots of 49 lots) of peanut butter samples, and 88% (29 lots of 33 lots) of the samples peanuts products. The aflatoxin B1 levels for peanut butter and peanuts products were range of 3 - 42 ppb and range of 3 - 9 ppb, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 contamination was surveyed in raw shelled peanuts(992 lots), peanut butter(259 lots), butter peanut(53 lots), peanut miso(2 lots) and peanut oil(1 lot), imported to Japan during March 1971 to Augaut 1972. The regulation level of aflatoxin B1 in food is 10 ppb in Japan. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.6%(85 lots of 992 lots)of the raw shelled peanuts, 9.7%(25 lots of 259 lots)of the peanut butter, 5.7%(3 lots of 53 lots)of the butter peanut, and 4.6%(46 lots)of raw shelled peanuts, 3.9%(10 lots)of peanut butter, and 3.8%(2 lots)of butter peanut were rejected as having above the regulation level of aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 contamination of small-type raw shelled peanuts was detected in exports from 20 of 31 countries. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 3.4%(670 lots of 19,863 lots)of small-type raw shelled peanut samples and 1.4% (269 lots) were rejected as having above the regulation level of aflatoxin B1. The aflatoxin B1 levels for raw shelled peanuts, peanut butter and butter peanut were range 10 - 7400 ppb, 10 - 85ppb and 10 - 85 ppb, respectively.
The use of Clay(Hydrated Sodium Calcium Alminosilicate, HSCAS)in feeds for the purpose of detoxifying aflatoxin and improving the productivity of livestock ingesting it was studied. Since it has been demonstrated that the Clay adsorbs aflatoxin chemically in vitro, the study aimed at confirming the efficacy of Clay added to feeds was conducted in various livestock fed with the aflatoxin-contaminated feeds. As a result, it has been confirmed that the Clay reduces the effect of this toxin on livestock and improves the growth of livestock, resulting in decreases in the transition of this toxin into milk.