JSM Mycotoxins
Online ISSN : 1881-0128
Print ISSN : 0285-1466
ISSN-L : 0285-1466
Volume 1986 , Issue 23
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Tatsuo MIYAMURA
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 1-3
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • M. ENOMOTO
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 5-10
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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  • M. OMATA
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 11-14
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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  • T. TAKAHASHI, Y. ONOUE, M. MORI
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 15-22
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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    A survey was carried out to obtain data on the mycoflora and the occurrence of aflatoxigenic mold contamination of hay cube (cube-shaped alfalfa hay). As the mycoflora of 24 samples, Eurotium spp. (Aspergillus glaucus), Scopulariopsis spp., Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were predominant. A. flavus was isolated from 3 of 24 samples in colony counts per g from 1.0×101 to 1.0×107, but aflatoxins (AF) could not be detected even on the sample which was contaminated with 1.0×107 cfu/g of A. flavus. Furthermore, inoculation test of aflatoxigenic A. flavus on hay cube medium or on glucose-added hay cube medium was found that growth of aflatoxigenic A. flavus was well without any accumulation of AF in the media. These findings were subsequently proven that addition of hay cube water extract (equivalent amounts of 2.50g of hay cube) in 50 ml of yeast extract sucrose medium completely inhibited the AF production by aflatoxigenic A. flavus while this inhibitory effect was not pronounced on its mycelial growth. The pH of medium did not substantially influence the inhibitory action of hay cube. Attempts to find similar inhibitory effect of hay cube water extract against ochratoxin A (OCT-A) production by A. ochraceus, sterigmatocystin (ST) production by A. versicolor and citrinin (CI) production by Penicillium citrinum were unsuccessful. Therefore, data reported here indicate that hay cube can support the production of OCT-A, ST and CI by these mycotoxigenic contaminants.
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  • Inhibition of succinate oxidase
    K. KAWAI, T. NAKAMARU, H. HISADA, Y. NOZAWA, T. HAMASAKI
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 23-28
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: February 04, 2010
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    Averufin, an intermediate in aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis, has been found to be a potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. At higher concentrations than those for uncoupling activity, averufin, strongly depresses state 3 respiration of mitochondria. In the present study, the mode of inhibition of averufin on the state 3 respiration has been investigated by using electron transport particles (ETP) which are reverted membrane vesicles of mitochondrial inner membranes. Averufin was observed to strongly inhibit succinate oxidase in ETP, suggesting a direct interaction of averufin with the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Succinate dehydrogenase (succinate→complex II→PMS) and cytochrome c oxidase (ascorbate→TMPD→cytochrome c→complex IV→O2) were not affected but succinate cytochrome c reductase (succinate→complex II→CoQ→complex III→cytochrome c) was markedly depressed by averufin. These results apparently indicate that averufin selectively interfere with complex III of the respiratory chain in mitochondria, by which averufin depresses the state 3 respiration of mitochondria. None of these enzyme complexes in ETP were affected by averufin dimethylether which was able to depress the state 3 respiration of intact mitochondria.
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  • F. TASHIRO, S. MORIMURA, K. HAYASHI, R. MAKINO, H. KAWAMURA, N. HORIKO ...
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 29-33
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: February 04, 2010
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    In vitro culture cell line, Kagura-1, was established from a rat hepatocellular carcinoma induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). When the cells at passage 15 were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in collagencoated dishes, the population doubling time and saturation density were 13.2 hr and 1.9×105 cells/cm2, respectively. The established cells formed colonies in soft agar.We examined the expression of proto-oncogenes in two liver tumors induced by AFBI and Kagura-1 cell. Both c-myc and c-Ha-ras expressions were activated at high levels in both tumors and Kagura-1 cells.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 34-46
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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  • F. TASHIRO, N. HORIKOSHI, N. TANAKA, Y. UENO
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 35-40
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: February 04, 2010
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    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and sterigmatocystin (STC) on the hormonal induction of liver-specific enzymes and the binding capacity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were observed with cultured mammalian cells, H4-II-E, which possess many functional enzymes of mature liver cells. The liver-specific enzymes such as tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), were induced by various hormones such as hydrocortisone (HC), insulin, and dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2 cAMP) in various degrees. The 50% inhibi-tion concentrations (IC50, μg/ml) of AFB1 to HC-dependent induction of TAT, GPT, and PEPCK were 0.2, 0.055, and 2.0, respectively. Whereas, insulin-dependent induc-tion of TAT was slightly inhibited by AFB1. As for STC, the IC50 for HC induction of TAT was 3.5 μg/ml, and no inhibitory effect on insulin-dependent induction was observed. Quick-blot analysis, which showed a marked reduction of the HC-induced synthesis of TAT mRNA, indicated that AFB1 inhibited a transcriptional step. In the cell-free system, both mycotoxins showed no direct inhibitory effect on the formation of [3H]triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-GR complex, its activation and binding to nuclear acceptor sites. The inhibition of this GR-complex formation was observed only when the mycotoxins were activated by S9 system. In the whole cell system pretreated with AFB1, the formation of cytosolic [3H]TAGR complex was greatly reduced, and the release of nuclear GR complex was promoted. STC caused no marked reduction of the cytosolic GR complex. Kinetic analysis revealed that the cytosolic GR receptor was markedly impaired by AFBI, and the capacity of nuclear GR acceptor sites was greatly reduced by STC. The present data indicated marked differences between the carcinogenic bisfuranoids, AFB1 and STC, in regards to the hormonal induction of liver-specific enzymes and the function of cytosolic/nuclear GRs, and the impairment of cellular factors (enzymes) which regulates GR recycling system was suggested.
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  • M. YAMAZAKI, Y. SATOH, Y. HORIE, Y. MAEBAYASHI
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 41-45
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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    The ability of 207 strains of 122 species of Ascomycetes, to produce a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in solid cultures on rice was examined. The production of monoamine oxidase inhibitors by members of the following genera was confirmed: Achaetomium, Anixiella, Apiosordaria, Arxiomyces, Chaetomium, Cordyceps, Diplogelasinospora, Emericella, Eupenicillium, Kernia, Lophotrichus, Microascus, Neocosmospora, Onygena, Petriella, Pithoascus, Pseudallescheria, Sphaerodes, Talaromyces and Trichocoma.
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  • T. TAMAKA, A. HASEGAWA, N. TOYAZAKI, Y. NATSUKI, Y. MATSUDA, S. YAMAMO ...
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 47-52
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Contamination by aflatoxins B1 and B2 in shelled peanuts harvested from Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, was investigated. The extraction with methano1-1% NaCl solution (55:45, v/v), followed by purification on a Sep-Pak silica cartridge column, and HPLC analysis revealed the contamination of 5.9mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 and 0.3mg/kg of aflatoxin B2 in the shelled peanuts. Aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by mass spectral analysis. Mycological survey detected aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus on peanut kernels in the infested lot.
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  • T. YOSHIZAWA, K. OHTSUBO, T. SASAKI, K. NAKAMURA
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 53-57
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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    To assess toxic effects of the purified satratoxins G and H, 4 week-old ddY male mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection and were evaluated for histopathological evidence of the organ injuries. Intraperitoneal LD50 of satratoxins G and H were estimated as 1.23±0.08 and 5.69±0.43mg/kg body weight, respectively. Both toxins caused extensive ulceration of the small intestine and a relatively mild damage of the lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues in lethal animals. Furthermore, satratoxin G caused vacuolar and fatty degeneration of the hepatic cells.
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  • An examination in rainy season (August-September, 1985)
    O. TSURUTA, T. GOTO, M. SAITO, P. SIRIACHA, K. PANAWAS, D. BUANGSUWON
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 59-61
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The distribution of Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that causes aflatoxin contamination of maize, was examined for soil samples collected from several maize production areas during rainy season in Thailand. Some strains of A. flavus appeared to be isolated geographically with different frequency.
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  • A preliminary examination in rainy season (September, 1985)
    O. TSURUTA, T. GOTO, P. SIRIACHA, M. SAITO, D. BUANGSUWON
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 62-63
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The distribution of airborne Aspergillus flavus spores was determined at several maize production areas during rainy season in Thailand. The higher distribution was detected in the atmosphere at middleman's, natural drying places, compared with maize fields where little or no spores were found.
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  • M. SUZUKI, N. NARITA, S. UDAGAWA, K. NORIZUKI
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 64-66
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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    Re-evaluation of Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus agar (AFPA) was made after incubation test of 90 strains of A. flavus group and 6 strains of other Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Most of the tested strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were isolated from imported foods in Japan. It may be concluded from the plate cultures of the tested strains on AFPA that the previously reported procedure is reproducible and suitable for use in quality control as an index to the presence of aflatoxin-producing fungi in imported foods.
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  • H. TSUNODA, T. TATSUNO, N. MOROOKA
    1986 Volume 1986 Issue 23 Pages 67-70
    Published: September 30, 1986
    Released: August 04, 2009
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    Mycoflora of pine and cedar trees were investigated on collection of about 400 samples from allover Japan since 1980. A total of 31 species were isolated. In these fungi, 12 species were pathogenic by inoculation experiments. Apiocarpella sp., Phomopsis pini-densiflora, Phomopsis sp. (Akita), Haplosporella sp., Phlyctaena picea and Phlyctaena sp. (Hakodate) were generally detected on the wilted pine trees. Haplosporella sp., Phomopsis sp. (Fusa) and Phomopsis sp. (Kawaguchi) were encountered in wilted cedar trees, while Cercospora sequoiae was not able to isolate during this investigation.Haplosporella sp., Phomopsis pini-densi flora, and Phlyctaena picea were detected on both pine and cedar trees.
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