JSM Mycotoxins
Online ISSN : 1881-0128
Print ISSN : 0285-1466
ISSN-L : 0285-1466
Current issue
Displaying 1-3 of 3 articles from this issue
Part I (Papers in English)
Research Paper
  • Hirokazu Shimada, Yoshikazu Matsui, Shu Tabata, Naoki Kobayashi, Haruo ...
    2024 Volume 74 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 17, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 10, 2024

      Almonds are nutritious and have become popular confectionary ingredients. A significant concern in the almond industry is product loss caused by aflatoxin (AF) contamination infected by the toxigenic fungi such Aspergillus flavus. AF contamination of almonds is a major human health risk concern and has an economic impact on the almond industry worldwide. Our previous report showed that near-infrared (NIR) spectrometric sorting of peanuts effectively decreased the levels of AFs by rejecting deteriorated kennels even when the lot was highly contaminated. In this study, we used NIR sorting to reduce the AF levels in the contaminated almonds. The transmittance ratio at 800-1100 nm (800/1100 nm) can be used to remove deteriorated kernels, including AF-contaminated kernels. The ratio could not directly detect AF-contaminated kernels but detected the internal discoloration caused by fungal digestion in the kernels, similar to sorting peanuts. In this study, twelve sub-samples (approximately 550 kg), including relatively low and high levels of AF-contaminated samples (maximum 117 μg/kg of AFs, in total), were segregated by the spectrometric sorting. After sorting, none of the acceptable categories contained detectable amounts of AFs. NIR spectrometric sorting can reduce health concerns and economic losses, enhance the efficient utilization and reconditioning of AF-contaminated lots in the almond industry, and help attain the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

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Award Review
  • Tadahiro Suzuki
    2024 Volume 74 Issue 1 Pages 7-12
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 17, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 26, 2023

      In addressing the problem of mycotoxin toxicity and contamination risk, we conducted following studies encompassing toxicity evaluation and detection techniques.

      Toxicity evaluation of mycotoxins involved an exploration of the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), patulin (PAT), and deoxynivalenol (DON) exposures, as well as their derivatives and glycosides, using DNA microarray analysis in a yeast cell system. AFB1 induced gene expression changes related to the sphingolipid metabolic pathway, resulting in cell cycle abnormalities. As for the comparison among type-B trichothecene mycotoxins, 15-acetyl-DON (15AcDON), fusarenon X (FusX), and DON exhibited higher toxicity. The assessment of PAT toxicity also considered the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA), revealing a recovery of cell proliferation and normalization of gene expression upon AsA addition. In addition to yeast cell testing, toxicity evaluation using green algae highlighted distinct toxicities between 15AcDON and FusX under specific light irradiation conditions.

      Exploring the regulation of AF synthesis through light irradiation tests revealed that blue–green light at 500–525 nm maximized AF synthesis, whereas a wavelength that completely inhibited AF synthesis was not identified in the visible light range of 400–720 nm. The development of a simple detection medium for AF-synthetic fungi involved the incorporation of AF by alfa-cyclodextrin and the addition of activated carbon (AC). The inclusion of AC not only reduced scattering light around a colony on the culture plate but also thought to be provided the necessary metal ions for improved observation efficiency.

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  • Kazuhiro Sato
    2024 Volume 74 Issue 1 Pages 19-23
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 17, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 08, 2023

      Both barley and wheat originate from the arid regions of the Near East. Their characteristics need to be improved in order to grow them in the Japanese environment. One of the challenges of barley and wheat production in our humid conditions is Fusarium head blight. Recently, a resistance candidate gene in barley was identified and shown to have mycotoxin suppressive effects. Research is currently underway to utilize the results to reduce mycotoxin content in wheat. The authors isolated Qsd1, a major seed dormancy gene in barley that determines the length of germination and is effective in preventing grain damage caused by rain during the harvest period. A triple mutant created by genome editing targeting sequences common to the three wheat homoeologous genes of Qsd1 exhibits approximately one week longer seed dormancy, and is expected to have the effect of improving pre-harvest sprouting resistance.

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