Phytopathogenic and mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. are widespread in Malaysia. Common mycotoxigenic as well as phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. are F. oxysporum and several species members of the F. fujikuroi species complex, particularly F. proliferatum and F. fujikuroi. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. infect crops in the field and can contaminate the crops after harvest and during storage. In vitro studies indicate that many isolates of mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. can produce mycotoxins, suggesting that these isolates can also produce mycotoxins in the host plant. Thus, there are opportunities for mycotoxin carryover to food and feed products. Although most Fusarium mycotoxins are heat stable, food processing such as sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, and extrusion cooking have been reported to reduce concentrations of mycotoxins in food and feed products to varying degrees. In Malaysia, more studies on human exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins and to other mycotoxins are needed because such data are useful for estimation of the exposure levels.
The extraction of silica from rice husk ash (RHA) for the encapsulation of aflatoxin B1 antibody (Ab-AFB1) and its application as a matrix in immunoaffinity columns (IACs) were achieved. The RHA extraction was performed using 4 M NaOH, which yielded sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) for the synthesis of silica gel. The obtained silica was used for encapsulating Ab-AFB1 using the sol-gel technique. One milliliter of 1 M Na2SiO3:H2O:H3PO4 (0.43:0.11:0.46) could generate silica gel that was suitable for encapsulating 1.36 mg of Ab-AFB1 at pH 7. After 48 hours of aging, the silica gel modified with Ab-AFB1 (SG-Ab-AFB1) was ground, and packed as the matrix in the IAC for aflatoxins purification. The modified silica gel was characterized using FTIR and SEM. The properties of IAC with SG-Ab-AFB1 were investigated by evaluating AF recovery, binding capacity, and reusability. The recovery of AFB1 was 94.11 ± 4.62%. In addition to AFB1 recovery, the column also retained AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 with recovery values of 98.22 ± 3.74%, 92.22 ± 7.62%, and 83.00 ± 6.31%, respectively. This column, which contained 0.5 g of SG-Ab-AFB1 had a binding capacity of approximately 50 ng of AFs per column, and could be reused at least 5 times with a recovery of more than 80%.
The aim of the study was to determine feed and feed storage factors associated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in bulk milk of dairy farms. The study was conducted from May to July 2016, at all smallholder farms in Mae Wang dairy cooperative, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data on feed and feed storage factors were collected from the farmers using interviews and observations. For feed, we included type of roughage and physical appearance of concentrated feed, and for feed storage factor, we included storage method of roughages. AFM1 concentration was measured using the Charm® ROSA® MRLAFMQ (aflatoxin M1) Test. Fisher’s exact chi-square test was used to determine the association of feed and feed management factors with AFM1 contamination. From a total of 67 farms, 50 farms were included in the analysis. AFM1 contamination was observed in 46% of the samples. Farms using factory-corn silage had a significantly higher percentage of AFM1 contamination (62.5%) than farms that did not use factory-corn silage (30.8%). AFM1 contamination in farms that used concentrates with cracked pellets was significantly higher (64.3%) than in those that did not (22.7%). For feed storage, roughage stored in piles within the barn was associated with significantly higher AFM1 contamination than that stored outside (61.5% and 29.2%, respectively). In addition, AFM1 contamination for roughage piles with mold on the surface was higher (60%) than that for roughage piles without mold (25%). Our results indicate that type of feed and feed storage factors are associated with AFM1 contamination in bulk milk.
This manuscript provides data on the analysis of aflatoxin (AFs) contamination in Myanmar agricultural commodities which were intended for export and domestic consumption from 2008 to 2015. Most of the samples were white rice, broken rice, parboiled rice, green mung bean, black sesame seed, white sesame seed, black matpe, butter bean, toor whole, peyin bean (bamboo bean) and yellow maize. The total AFs concentration of these samples was quantitatively analyzed by the Romer method using thin layer chromatography with visual estimation. Aflatoxin (AF) B1 contamination was frequently detected in all of the contaminated samples, however, AFG1 and AFG2 contamination with no AFB1 group was found in one sample of broken rice from 2014. In addition, some samples were contaminated with not only AFB1 but also AFB2 and AFG1. A sample that contained all four kinds of AFs was not found. A 2008 yellow maize sample was found to have the highest concentration of AFB1 (30.35 μg/kg). Generally, the most highly contaminated samples were below the permissible limits for total AF levels as regulated by the European Union and Codex Alimentarius Commission.
The Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity entered into force in Japan on 20th August, 2017. This manuscript is a thumbnail sketch briefly introducing the background and the requirements of the Nagoya Protocol, touching on Japanese domestic measures.