To identify varietal differences in deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) content in forage corn in Japan, field experiments involving fungal inoculations were conducted. High levels of DON content were observed in both the silk insertion and kernel injection experimental plots, probably because of favorable environmental conditions including that of temperature and rainfall. A variety ‘Kimimaru’, resistant to Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination, is a key contributor to DON contamination resistance. D3G concentration was lower than that of DON in all experimental plots. Some varieties had low DON content and high D3G/DON ratio in the silk insertion. Since the D3G/DON ratio is an indicator of DON detoxification activity, further evaluation of these varieties is required. The coefficients of determination for DON and D3G content were significant in both plots (R2 = 0.90 and 0.54, respectively). Although the toxicity of D3G is lower than that of DON, most of the varieties examined in this study accumulated non-negligible D3G. Since the data in this study was obtained from a single-year trial, further studies are required for future breeding and stable forage supply.
A limited surveillance of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination was conducted with ten samples of processed chili pepper (CP) retailed in commercial market in Myanmar during 2017. All samples were dried and ground for consumption. The concentrations of major AFs, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), in these samples were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (HPLC-FL) detection after immunoaffinity column purification. Each value was confirmed by spike and recovery test. The contamination of AFB1 was detected in nine samples except for one sample (CP-3). That of AFB2 was detected in four samples (CP-6, CP-7, CP-8, and CP-9). One sample with the highest concentration of AFB1 and AFB2 (CP-8) showed the value of total AFs (sum of major four AFs) above 10 μg/kg, while others showed below 10 μg/kg, the maximum permissible limit of total AFs level set by many countries. No contamination of AFG1 and AFG2 was found in ten samples. The data obtained here suggest that CP may have affinity to Aspergillus flavus, a B-type AFs producer.
A 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-chemotype strain of Fusarium graminearum was grown on rice flour solid medium, and 85% acetonitrile extracts of the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC-UV or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with or without pretreatment with a multifunctional clean-up column. Three-way analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences in the measured levels of trichothecenes irrespective of the analytical instruments used; however, slightly but significantly elevated values were obtained with column pretreatment.
Accurate quantity of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning Okadaic acid and Ciguatoxins which are the causative substance of ciguatera fish poisoning were determined by qNMR. The signals for use of determining quantity were carefully chosen because both substances are large polyether cyclic compounds. An internal standard material enable to be removable after measurement was used for quantification of the precious marine biotoxins. The uncertainty estimated for the quantitative values of both substances increased with decreasing sample amounts for measurement. Quantification of cyclic polyether compounds having molecular weight around 1000 was achievable for subjects at least 0.01 mg by employing qNMR .
We investigated deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination status of corn silage (CS) and factors that affect DON contamination. DON was detected at a high rate in CS produced in Hokkaido. The contamination cases with the highest concentrations rarely exceeded the reference value for Japan. Weather conditions were found to significantly influence the incidence of contamination. We identified additional factors that affect DON contamination. Preharvest - 1) Incidence of Gibberella ear rot in maize is correlated with high concentrations of DON contamination, 2) Physical damage to maize increased the risk of DON contamination. Post-harvest - aerobic condition increase risk of DON contamination. In order to reduce DON contamination, the following measures can be considered : 1) elimination of cultivars susceptible to Gibberella ear rot; 2) instlation of electric fences to prevent damage by wild animals; 3) maintenance of anaerobic conditions during storage and preparation good quality silage.
In this article “Toxic Molds” expressed as harmful mold including mold poison. The author’s research on Toxic Molds has reached 50 years from 1969. In an early study, I learned the foundation and identification technology of mold. After that, I studied about mold ecology and damage of food and housing. In the period around 1980, collaborative research related to mycotoxin-producing fungi was conducted. It has been studying Toxic Molds involved in health damage and environmental damage since then from various angles. Indeed, research and investigation on mycotoxins in this society is a pioneer both domestically and abroad. Also, I hope that valuable information will be returned to the people in concrete and easy-to-understand words. This society is an organization that can disseminate correct knowledge to the people. Do not forget the mission as well.
The 2nd Mycokey International Conference was held from 16th to 18th September 2018 at Wuhan, China. The title of the Conference was “Integrated Solutions for Mycotoxin Management”. In total there were 248 participants from 17different countries, representing all continents. There were 73 oral presentations and 102 posters that were exposed during whole conference. The overview of the conference was reported.