Tea and tea constituents are known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancerous cells, suggesting their beneficial effects as chemopreventive agents. Previous studies have shown that low molecular weight constituent catechins and high molecular weight fractions of tea have the apoptosis-inducing activity, but that their action mechanisms may be different. Since cell cycle arrest is known to be one of the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis, we examined the effects of these tea constituents on cell cycle progression of human leukemia U937 cells. The results showed that the high molecular weight fractions of green tea and black tea caused G2/M arrest associated with upregulation of p21/Waf1, but that epigallocatechin gallate, a major component of green tea catechins, gave little effects of cell cycle progression and p21/Waf1 expression. Thus, the present results suggest the difference in the apoptosis-induction mechanism between the two types of tea constituents.
A novel substance, #675, found from an Streptomyces sp. SM675 culture medium, dose-dependently stimulates the proliferation of human functional liver cell 4 (FLC4). When FLC4 cells were incubated under conditions without fetal bovine serum (FBS), typical features of apoptotic cell death such as shrinkage and nuclear condensation appeared; high molecular weight (HMW) DNA fragments were found; and caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins were cleaved. When FLC4 cells were incubated with #675 and without FBS, the cells grew healthy, no HMW DNA fragments were found, and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage weakened, suggesting that #675 protects FLC4 cells from apoptosis induced by FBS-deprivation. The quantitative reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction did not show differences in PARP or Bcl-2 mRNA expression in FLC4 cells incubated with or without #675, indicating other genes may be involved in this anti-apoptosis effect. These results show that #675 enhances FLC4 proliferation via an apoptosis-inhibition pathway, implying potential pharmacological and clinical applications.
This study assessed the potential application and the effectiveness of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) for preventing skeletal muscle atrophy in adult rats. FMS using magnetic stimulator was performed to rat soleus muscle by placing a round magnetic coil on the back of 3rd-5th lumbar vertebral level at 20 Hz frequency for 60 min/day up to 10 days. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate relative amounts of mRNAs specific to four myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms [MHCIβ, MHCIIa, MHCIIb, and MHCIId(x)] in rat soleus muscle during contractile activity by magnetic stimulation. Ten-day unloading by hindlimb suspension induced a drastic decrease of MHCIβ and MHCIIa mRNA expressions, while MHCIIb and MHCIId(x) mRNA was not decreased. The magnetic stimulation resuscitated the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of MHCIβ and MHCIIa. These results suggest that magnetic stimulation on acute atrophied muscles is useful for preventing the muscle atrophy.
Endothelial cells (ECs) are activated in response to high-flow. Our previous studies using arteriovenous fistula (AVF) model have demonstrated that high-flow in blood vessels induces an early and rapid proliferation of ECs before arterial dilatation. Here, we investigated the proliferation of ECs, which had once been stimulated by high-flow loading, in a situation without the influence of high-flow. First, we induced high-flow in the rabbit common carotid artery by using AVF. Then, we removed the influence of high-flow by normalization of high-flow with the closure of AVF or by removal of flow itself with tissue isolation and organ culture or with cell culture of ECs, at the timing considered that ECs began to proliferate. Kinetics of ECs was investigated by a laser scanning confocal microscopy, phase-contrast microscopy and light microscopy using bromodeoxyuridine labeling method. We found that ECs, which had once been stimulated by high-flow, transiently proliferated even after normalization of high-flow or removal of flow. We assume that proliferation of ECs is promised when these cells start to proliferate after high-flow loading.
Prostaglandins (PGs) are well known as one of the chemical mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), PG synthesis inhibitors, are used for anti-nocoception and/or anti-inflammation. We examine the effect of loxoprofen, a NSAID, on micturiton in acetic acid-induced bladder inflammation of the rats. In cystometrogram study with saline infusion into the urinary bladder, loxoprofen did not alter the interval of bladder contraction (IC, 107% of the control). IC was shortened by acetic acid infusion (65% of the control) and loxoprofen prolonged the IC (162% of acetic acid infused period). This prolonged IC was approximately same as the control. Loxoprofen did not alter the threshold pressure and the maximal voiding pressure. These data suggest that PGE2 might not play a part of normal micturition and may play a part of the micturition reflex during acetic acid infusion. That is, loxoprofen might be useful for pathological hyperreflex of the micturition.
Gastric colonization of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) occurs in a very early age via infected mothers having H. pylori-specific IgG antibodies that would be transplacentally transferred to infants. In addition, H. pylori urease-specific IgG was associated with chronic gastric atrophy and post-immunization gastritis is usually correlated with a strong local IgG response. These findings indicate that H. pylori-specific IgG antibodies, in particular its urease-specific IgG, may induce unfavorable influence on host resistance against H. pylori. Here, we show that we have found a unique H. pylori urease-specific IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb), termed S3, recognizing the conformational structure of the small subunit Ure-A, which enhanced the urease enzymatic activity. Such enhancement of the H. pylori urease activity induced by 1 μg of S3 was almost completely cancelled by simultaneously added the same amount of L2 MAb, which has a strong and specific inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease and recognizes a liner epitope of 8-mer peptide (F8: SIKEDVQF) within its large subunit Ure-B (Infect. Immun. 69 : 6597, 2001). Intravenous pre-administration of purified S3 into BALB/c mice showed significant augmentation for gastric colonization with the susceptible strain Sydney Strain-1 (SS-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a H. pylori urease-specific IgG MAb induced an augmentation of their gastric colonization in vivo.