This study aimed to clarify the experiences of elderly spouses who serve as
sur rogate decision makers when their par tners suf fer from a sudden onset of
cerebrovascular disease and have difficulty with communication, from acute care hospital
admission to discharge. Participants were five elderly spouses. Semi-structured interviews
were conducted, and the contents were qualitatively and inductively analyzed. Surrogate
decision-making by elderly spouses was classified into surgery, hospital transfer（ discharge）,
medical treatment. With respect to surgery, spouses felt that “they had no choice but to leave
care to the doctors” and that “they were the only ones who could make decisions.” With
respect to hospital transfer（ discharge）, spouses realized “they were the ones to make the
final decisions through compromising,” and during medical treatment, spouses were faced
with the medical dilemma of “having no room to make choices at their own decision.” The
findings of this study demonstrated the importance of medical professionals devising
guidelines for the content, methods, and timing of explanations, as well as continuing to
consider which events elderly spouses view as problematic.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted to clarify the attitudes of midwives
working in birth centers in Great Britain. Six midwives participated in the study. The
collected data were categorised and analysed qualitatively and inductively.
The participants believed that ‘midwives were necessary for births in Great Britain’. Their
views about midwifery included the following: ‘midwives’ thoughts on birthing primarily
focus on the women’ and ‘midwives protect natural birthing’. Furthermore, as midwives, they
embraced the following beliefs: ‘to protect natural birthing, it should be considered separate
from medical care’; ‘the guidelines can be followed in various ways, but midwives should
work towards a birth that respects the woman’s beliefs’; ‘midwives have the skills required
for maternity care’; and ‘I want to be involved in facilitating natural births’.
Great Britain’s midwifery education is believed to bolster dedication of midwives ;
furthermore, governmental support through the establishment of maternity policies and the
clear positioning of midwives and women giving birth within national maternity policies is
【Purpose】 This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of coordinated
movement in adolescents with mild developmental disability.
【Methods】 Participants were 25 adolescents with mild developmental disability and 25
healthy adolescents. We examined coordinated movement through N type coordinated
movement test. We analyzed the data by performing an unpaired t-test.
【Results】 The coordinated movement of the upper extremities, trunk, and lower
extremities of adolescents with mild developmental disability while slowing down was
significantly lower. The coordinated movement of the trunk and lower extremities of
adolescents with mild developmental disability during catching was significantly higher.
【Conclusions】 Slowing down volley ball and tennis ball did not cause problems with ball
control when slowed down at the natural speed. However, it was clear by the coordinated
movement of the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities that slowing down was
insufficient. Further, the catching action of adolescents with mild developmental disability
were several excessive movements. Our results suggested that as the complexity of the task
increased, ball control became more difficult.
In this study, we considered the precision and characteristics of the transparent
detector. Bottom of the many non-invasive type instruments detector is covered by a lead,
measurements do not include X-ray scattering. Recently, transparent detector have been developed
as a non-invasive type instruments Xi（ Raysafes） option, can be performed dose
evalutaion that includes X-ray scattering. We used X-ray equipment, conducting in-air, above-
Poly methyl methacrylate（ PMMA） phantom, internal-PMMA phantom and Auto Exposure
Control（ AEC） receptor internal measurements for transparent detector :TD, ionization
chamber（ 9015） and non-invasive type instruments（ R/F）. For air kerma measured by the
TD, The TD has an upper dose limit, but error of the TD between the 9015 and the R/F was
within ±3％ , showing good correlation with each device.For above-PMMA dose measured
by the TD, there was a trend towards larger error for lower tube voltage, but error was within
±5％ when above 70 kV. For internal-PMMA and internal-AEC receptor dose measured by
the TD, when compared to dose of the R/F, it was possible to include X-ray scattering in dose
evaluation. As the TD is transparent type, there is little effect during AEC operation on dose
volume, and entrance surface dose（ ESD） inclusive of X-ray scattering is possible. This
should be effective for X-ray equipment quality control.