The purpose of this study was to investigate associations among gait, standing
balance and muscle contraction latency, sustained contraction during weight bearing on the
lower limbs while sitting, in stroke patients. Thirty-five stroke patients, classified by gait
independence, were assessed for lower limb loading force using a surface electromyogram
（EMG） on vastus medialis and biceps femoris longus muscles in the paretic side. They
performed 5-second maximal voluntary contraction and 10-second sustained contraction
under lower limb loading while sitting, and the root mean square （RMS） of EMG was
determined. Repeated measures two way of analysis of variance were used to analyse the
effect of gait independence and time factors. Patients that could gait independently showed a
significant higher RMS of paretic vastus medialis muscle than those that could not. There
were significant correlations among maximal voluntary contraction and dynamic balance of
functional balance scale. These findings suggest that maximal muscle power and sustained
contraction by paretic lower limb are factors that correlate with gait and standing balance.
We aimed to measure the thickness and reliability of soft tissue surrounding the shoulder
joint and using ultrasonography in the elderly compared to young adults.
Subjects and Methods
11 each of the elderly and young adults were recruited in this study. The thickness of
supraspinatus tendon （SST）, subacromial bursa （SAB） and long head of the biceps tendon
（BT） were measured using ultrasound. Intra-rater reliability of ultrasound measurements
were evaluated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient （ICC）. Bland-Altman
method and standard error of measurement （SEM） was used to evaluate systematic bias of
repeated measurements. The statistic difference in the measurements of tissue thickness
between the elderly and young adults was analysed with two independent groups t-test.
Results and Discussion
ICCs for overall measurements were SST; 0.91, SAB; 0.82, BT; 0.90 in young adults and
SST; 0.94, SAB; 0.87, BT; 0.87 in the elderly, SEMs were small and there was no systematic
bias across all outcomes for repeated measurements. The measurements of both SST and BT
in the elderly showed significantly greater thickness than those in young adults.
【Purpose】 This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and to compare equilibrium
function and lower limb muscle strength in adolescents with mild developmental disability.
【Methods】 Twenty-four adolescents with mild developmental disability （developmental
disability group, 15–16 years old） and 29 healthy adolescents （control group, 15–16 years
old） were selected. We used the maximum knee extensor strength, gravimetric test with a
stabilometer, and walking test in a straight line in the assessments. And the developmental
disability group was classified by the presence or absence of failure of walking test in a
straight line. We analyzed the data by performing an unpaired t test, and chi-square test. All
the analyses were conducted by using the SPSS statistical package for Windows, version
19.0. P values of ＜ 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
【Results】 In the developmental disability group, the mean maximum knee extensor strength
were lower than this in the control group. The values of almost all the parameters in the
gravimetric test were significantly high in the developmental disability group. In the
developmental disability group, the failure in the walking test in a straight line showed a
significant more. The left and right trajectory length closing the eye were longer in the
adolescents with mild developmental disability who failed the walking test in a straight line.
【Conclusions】The adolescents with mild developmental disability have decreased lower limb
muscle strength, static balance, and dynamic balance in comparison with the healthy
adolescents. Our results suggest that the adolescents with mild developmental disability who
failed the walking test in a straight line were lower at the static balance than those who didn’t
There is only one radiotherapy institution （not Linac but Cyberknife） in Machida
City. It’s not eliminating disparities in cancer care. This study is a hearing survey that heard
the radiation oncologists（ or the radiological technologists） about the radiotherapy system in
and around Machida city. The investigation revealed that the radiotherapy institution to be
made in Machida city unnecessary. There are plenty of radiotherapy institutions around
Machida city. I suggest a continual interview that heard the radiation oncologists about the
radiotherapy system around Machida city and the maintenance of traffic environment in and
around Machida city.