The work of school-based occupational therapists has not been clearly defined in Japan. Therefore, we examined this practical challenges and recommended intervention methods identified by preceding overseas studies.
Method: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for relevant literature for the period 2005–2020, using the following search terms and formula: “Occupational therapy” and “School-based” and “Participant.” Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews（PRISMA ScR）: Checklist and Explanation, we mapped papers related to school-based occupational therapy for children with developmental disorders via a scoping review. The research questions covered, first, the challenges faced by school-based occupational therapists, with particular reference to the Japanese occupational therapist’s intervention model; second, the direct intervention model; and third, the indirect intervention model.
Results: The literature search was conducted on March 4-5, 2020, which yielded 115 research papers. After screening these papers, we identified 31 to be included in the analysis. The challenges faced by school-based occupational therapists were discussed in 15 papers, whereas the direct intervention model was covered in 3 papers and indirect intervention model was covered in one paper.
Conclusion: The results indicated the importance of cooperating with teachers and parents, generalizing occupational therapy goals, and Occupational therapy awareness. And fewer studies of intervention models, children remained unchanged in the indirect intervention model. Further verification required.
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