【 Purpose】 This study aimed to clarify the factors that judged timing for the first surgery in the cerebral palsy patients who had undergone orthopedic surgeries. 【Methods】 176 questionnaires answered by guardians were selected among 358 patients who had undergone the orthopedic surgery and be able to collect a questionnaire. We clarified appropriate group and inappropriate group, unclear group from the query with timing for surgeries. We carried out one-way analysis of variance and square test among three groups and analyzed the reasons of query with timing for surgeries by qualitative analysis. 【Results】 Compared with the unclear group, the appropriate group showed a significantly
greater the current satisfaction for the physical function change. In addition, these categories were selected “postoperative function recovery state”, “specialized information of the society”, “compatibility with the participation in society situation”, “effect of environment factor”, “individuality as severity of impairment”. 【Conclusions】 The current satisfaction for the physical function change influenced a judgment of timing for surgeries, and it was possibility that a judgment of timing for surgeries and the postoperative satisfaction might improved by environmental setting.
Methylmercury（ MeHg） is a potent neurotoxin that causes Minamata disease and is particularly harmful during pregnancy, causing abnormal pregnancy or various adverse effects including congenital Minamata disease. Neural stem cells（ NSCs） can proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glia, playing a key role in the formation of the CNS. Here, we examined the effects of continuous exposure of homogeneous embryonic stem cell-derived primitive NSCs to MeHg in the proliferation and differentiation stages. Cultured without MeHg in the proliferation stage, NSCs showed an exponential increase in the number of the cells up to day 4. However, continuous exposure of NSCs to MeHg induced apoptosis and caused a decrease in the number of NSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Continuous
exposure of NSCs to MeHg in the differentiation stage also caused a decrease in the number of NSCs but had no or little effect on differentiation from surviving NSCs into neurons and glia. The NSCs were about 20 times more susceptible to MeHg in the proliferation stage than the differentiation stage. These effects of continuous MeHg exposure on NSCs may be valuable in elucidating the mechanisms by which MeHg exposure during pregnancy causes congenital Minamata disease and reproductive problems. In particular, the present results suggests that MeHg even at a very low concentration may decrease the number of proliferating NSCs in the early stages of development of central nervous system（ CNS） and cause shortage of NSCs required for normal development of CNS.
The purpose of this study was to show the relationship and the definite flexion angle proportion among the lower limb joint angles and the characteristics of muscle activity in different squatting conditions. The subjects were eight healthy men. Exercise tasks were squatting in three CFP （center of foot pressure） positions; 1:neutral, 2:forward and
3:backward. As a result, the relationships between two specific flexion angles（ knee joint vs. hip joint, and ankle joint vs. hip joint） were shown in linear regression equation in every CFP position. The flexion angle proportion of the knee and ankle joint angle to the hip joint angle （knee to hip ratio, ankle to hip ratio） remained constant, but the value differed according to the CFP positions. The above mentioned proportions were 1.1 and 0.4 respectively in
conditions 1 and 2, but were 0.9 and 0.2 in conditions 3. Muscles activity of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and tibial anterior effectively increased throughout the motion in every condition. There was a difference among the motions only in the tibial anterior. The muscle activity was significantly higher in order of conditions 2,1,3. The above results suggest that there were the definite flexion angle proportions between lower limb joint angles during squatting, but the value of flexion angle proportion differed depending on the CFP positions and the value of the backward squatting was smaller than the value of the neutral and forward squatting.
This study was conducted to identify effects of hassles related to wheeled walking aid use on the frequency of outings and quality of life (QOL) of elderly individuals using wheeled walking aids. In total, 219 elderly individuals living at home participated in this survey. These respondents used the Community General Support Centers in Prefecture A
and used wheeled walking aids when going out. Survey items included the following: subjects’ gender; age; family composition; place of residence; physical fitness; type of wheeled walking aid currently used; frequency of outings using wheeled walking aids; frequency of hassles associated with wheeled walking aid usage and negative feelings toward
these hassles; and QOL. In this study, cause-and-ef fect relationship models were hypothesized: (1) wheeled walking aid-related hassles affect the frequency of outings using a wheeled walking aid through negative feelings associated with the use of a wheeled walking aid and (2) the frequency of outings has an effect on QOL. Structural equation modeling was used to confirm that the data generally fit this cause-and-effect relationship model. Results suggested that in order to promote a higher frequency of outings among the elderly using wheeled walking aids, hassles attributable to wheeled walking aid and negative feelings toward these hassles (e.g., “psychological stresses about wheeled walking aid use,” “instability,” “difficulties with storage,” “difficulties with operation,” and “difficulties with
sitting”) must be minimized.
The quality control of medical x-ray equipment has become increasingly important
in order to ensure the safety of patients as well as the quality of medical imaging. Hitherto，
the quality control of x-ray equipment has been commonly conducted via spreadsheet
programs used to manage data on the tube voltage, tube current, exposure times and air
kerma, etc. We have developed a quality control program for x-ray equipment which run in
conjunction with a web-based application, and have also constructed a relational database.
Through this QC program, acceptance testing, constancy testing, and routine checks as
various kinds can all be seen together, allowing evaluation and analysis between different
facilities. Furthermore, quality control is optimized through simplification of the data
aggregation process and shortening of analysis time. We believe this program will be of great
use in the quality control of medical x-ray equipment.