Purpose : This study aimed to determine factors associated with continued breastfeeding,
based on mothers' reflections on their experiences of breastfeeding for 1 year following the
birth of their babies.
Subjects : The sample comprised 10 mothers who had given birth at a birth center and had
continued to breastfeed for 1 year.
Methods : This was a qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews were
conducted using an interviewer-guided approach. Data were qualitatively and inductively
analyzed and then categorized. This study was approved by the ethical review board of the
institution that the researchers belonged to.
Results/Discussion : Factors associated with continued breastfeeding included （a）
regarding breastfeeding to be natural;（ b） being watched over by specialists who recommend
breastfeeding; （c） breastfeeding support from the birth of their baby till 4 months of age;
and （d） understanding of the importance of breastfeeding by family members. Results also
suggested that mothers’ thoughts on breastfeeding, the presence of experts who recommend
breastfeeding, and the understanding of family members were necessary for continued
breastfeeding. It appears that guidance from persons close to mothers during the first few
months of motherhood is of particular importance for continued breastfeeding.
A scale for assessing stress in nurses involved in psychiatric care was developed
based on the perspective of stress recognition. Seventeen items designed for assessing stress
related to psychiatric care were developed based on previous studies and used in a survey.
Exploratory factor analysis was conducted by using data without missing values （N＝ 281）,
which extracted four factors: “Therapeutic contact,” “Insufficient knowledge and skills,”
“Negative attitudes of patients,” and “Cooperation with other professions.” Construct validity
of the scale that consisted of the above factors was examined by using confirmatory factor
analysis. The second-order factor model with the above factors as first-order factors fitted the
data, which statistically supported the construct validity of the scale based on its factor
structure. It is suggested that the newly developed scale would have a significant value for
investigating factors related to stress experienced by nurses providing psychiatric care.
There are few studies that have examined the aspects influencing the effects of a
long-term care prevention program. In this study, we investigated the influence of the
physical function at the end of an exercise class on the effects of a long-term care prevention
program. Participants were 23 community-dwelling elderly in the “A” ward of the Tokyo
Metropolitan. All participants completed an exercise class. Their certification of the longterm
care insurance （certified or not） was investigated at 1.5 to 2.0 year after the class.
Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness levels at
the end of the class and the certification. In addition, the 5-m usual walking time was strongly
associated with the certification （odds ratio 2.853, 95％ confidence interval: 1.094－ 7.440, P
＝ 0.032）. According to the ROC curve analysis, the cut-off value of the 5-m usual walking
time was revealed to be 4.96 sec. The walking ability is considered to be a strong predictor of
future ADL and the risk of dependence on long-term care services. This study indicates that
to elongate the healthy life expectancy, the walking speed should be maintained under 1 m/
Head trauma accidents caused by falling indoors have been reported. The purpose
of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the protective effect of a headband against head
impact caused by falls by using computer simulation. Firstly, four types of movements of falls
resulting from faint, slip, trip and step down were simulated by using a whole body numerical
model and four regions of bruises on the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital region were
chosen as the impact condition of the head. Secondly, the posture, translational and rotational
velocity just before the collision of the head were input to a finite element human head model
to simulate the collision motion of the head against the floor. A headband model made from
EVA （ ethylene-vinyl acetate） foam is constructed, and two kinds of floor （ tile and wooden
flooring ） are assumed and modeled. For each scenario of falls, head collisions with and
without headband were simulated and the risk of fracture, cerebral contusion and concussion
was calculated from the obtained mechanical responses during head collision. As a result, the
use of the headband generally reduced the risk of head injury in indoor fall accidents, even
though there are differences in protection effect depending on the postures of falling and the
type of floor.