It is recognized that consumer education as an educational system started in the 1920s. However its historical origins go back to the world of the Old Testament. At the end of the 19th century, when Ellen H. Richards founded human ecology and when the Lake Placid Conferences were held from 1899-1908 under the direction of Richards, home economics, with the perspective of human ecology, became the standard bearer for deveoloping and achieving the ideals of consumer education. On the other hand, out of economics, which treated consumption as a stepchild, arose consumer economics, which focused its attention on the consumer decision.making and the consumer environments. From that came an awareness of the need for consumer education.
This paper clarifies the contents of early Japanese consumer education viewed in its developmental process in USA. JACE's ”Consepts of consumer education” was written with the same scope and focus as PCCI's in 1992. However, consumer education was often equal to consumer movement and information in Japan. The definition of ”Concepts of consumer education” was affected by each living situation. Factors affecting consepts of consumer education were as follows:
1. economic systems: company attitudes, ways of obtaining,wants
2. Those who taught how to buy
3. Those who needed consumer education
4. The reason consumer education was needed
An enterprise is not a mere profit oriented entity. It is a social entity which consists of many interest‐ groups.
Therefore, an enterprise is responsible for these external interest‐ groups.
This paper deals whth social responsibility for consumers, and investigates relationships between these responsibilities and accounting information, cost accounting in paticular.
Problems of product liability and life cycle costs will be discussed in this paper.
Study to investigate the credit use Of American students (AS),Japanese students (JS)and Japanese bankruptcies (JB), and then to develop a credit use education program
1. Higher possesion rate of credit cards in AS than JS.(AS:882%,JS:37.5%,JB:73.7%)
2. The major disadvantage of credit card use for AS is having to pay high interst rates.(25.0%)Only 3.7% of JS pay attention to interest rates.92.9% of JB frequently used their card to pay their debts, despite a very high lending interest rate of around 30%. To promote awarenss of interst is necessary for Japanese.
3. The major reason AS obtain credit cards is to establish good credit rating.Only 2.3%of JS answered that obtaining it would establish good credit rating.We have to emphasize to JS the building of a good credit history.
4. AS read the contract more carfully than Js, but When they have obtained the credit card they are more likely to buy goods without planning, or buy mOre expensively. JB have same tendency as AS. Generally JS pay no attention to the contract, but they use credit cards more carefully than AS We have to teach AS how to use credit cards carefully and teach JS the importance of the contract
5. The sum of occurrences of low salary, sickness, or an unexpected accident in the causes of bankruptcy was 52.60/。 .To decrease bankruptcy, it is essential to overcome poverty problems in society
The purpose of this study is to clarify the way how to develop consumer education in the lifelong-learning system, and to reinforce the function of the network-system between consumer education and social education especially based at the local level. The Network includes system location, human, information, curriculum, and material network
To begin with, we did research about the actual conditions of consumer education programs in social education. We have found the necessity of cooperation of the administration of consumer education with that of social education, in order to avoid duplication or lack of consumer education programs.
This is a study of the present state of consumer activity in Taiwan and the difference of consumer behavior between Japan and Taiwan.
Conclusions are that(1)consumer activity of Taiwan is high level; (2) consumer behavior is affected by the degree of awareness in the consuming society, so there is difference between Japan and Taiwan.
The Cooperative Extension Service has an eighty year history of providing community-based lifelong education including consumer education. It serves to improve the quality of life of rural homes and communities, and to widen its range to urban areas as new problems confront the nation.
One of the keys to the success of Cooperative Extension Service has been its unique structure as a partnership among the federal government, state land-grant universities, and local counties with strong assistance of local volunteers, which multiply the impact of the Cooperative Extension Service.
Another key to its success has been the 4-H activities which lead an increase of future local volunteers.
Therefore, an efficient network with strong volunteer support is suggested for the Japanese lifelong education system. It is also suggested that consumer education for youth should beheld not only at school but also out of school, such as 4‐H activities in this study.
We conducted a fact finding survey of ACAP membership and pondered over the HEIB's possible future activity. Our survey revealed that individual membership in the ACAP was not a commonly known fact amongst the colleagues in their respective firms. However, it was felt that there was a greater acceptance of HEIB's suggestions in these Arms when they were presented by known ACAP members even when HEIB it self was not known well.A majority of the members didn't mind having male members in their HEIB Organization. An HEIB white paper published in July 1993 stated that one in four HEIB members held managerial positions in their respective firms and the the 71% of HEIB members were satisfied with their jobs. Increasing recognition and improving public awareness is a major issue that needs to be addressed.
Using a questionnaire we investigated the modem trend of buying expensive cosmetics rather than ordinary ones (market price less than ¥2000)by a large number of consumers especially among the younger generation.It was found that :1)for females of the younger generation, used makeup and cosmetics was expected to be a means of their proper self‐expression, 2)nevertheless, consumers were lacking appropriate information on cosmetics Consequently, advertising campaign much affected their motives of purchasing expensive cosmetics, and 3)safety of cosmetics on the skin was not always an essential criterion for selection.
For consumers, it is difficult to discriminate the real qualitative difference between expensive cosmetics and ordinary ones even if any differences are existing. This fact produces a trend of believing the more expensive one is better than the ordinary.For rational selection of cosmetics, the cosmetic makers should provide much more information on the cosmetics with ordinary prices.
It was clarified from the results of a survey of actual conditions, image profile and factor analysis that the aged can be a partner in a selling transaction of the form called “mallorder sales" There was found consumption behavior of the aged who win use mail order sales in the future as well, although they have anxiety for purchasing things only by seeing a catalog, an image of T.V. and the like, without reviewing actual goods, and anxiety about such problems as follow-up services, returning or replacing goods, etc. Since ageing of our society is expected to accelerate further, efforts of mail order firms responding to reliance of aged consumers, and consolidation of consumption environment and laws and enlightenment of the aged by the administration will become more important. For the aged themselves, the necessity of consumer education would further be increased in their lifelong leaning. Opportunities of their enlightenment, themes and lecturers in such events and other various plans with which they could learn pleasantly and obtain knowledge and techniques can be sad to be also important.
Purpose: Making aprons and studying the care labels attached to them was used as one of the teaching materials for consumer education in the domestic science courses. The purpose of this
class is to see whether studying the care labeling system as well as the making of the aprons themselves, is effective or not for pupils in the 6th grade of primary school to understand the interrealtions of home and society and to look at the society in connection with the home.
Method: By studying the apron care labels, the pupils learned how to write the application forms for such care labels, which indicate the quality of the texile goods, and what their coding numbers indicate. The evaluation of the class by the pupils was made by questionnaire survey, and all the aprons made by the pupils were reviewed and campared.
Resuls: Pupils gave a favorable evaluaion of the class (interest, motivation, attitudes, knowledge/understanding), and teachers' evaluation was in general good (making aprons as well as their care labels, including the filling out and filing of the application forms).
This paper focuses on the actual situations of the subjects concerning consumer education at the divisions of home economics in 219 junior colleges.
1. We can classify the subjects into 3 groups : the core subjects concerning consumer education, the subjects concerning relationships between firms and consumers, and the subjects concerning life and consumption.
2. The core subjects involve Consumer Affairs, Consumer Protection, Consumer Laws, Consumer Education, Consumer Commodity, and so on.
3. only 8.7% of 219 junior colleges have the subjects concerning Consumer Affairs, and 13.2% have subjects concerning Consumer Protection.
4. 74. 1% of the junior colleges have the subjects concerning consumer education in Kinki District, while 37.5% have them in Tohoku District.