The purpose of this study was to examine the background and influence of the integration between the Netherlands Olympic Committee and the Netherlands Paralympic Committee. We adopted the framework of a neo-institutional theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two staff of the Netherlands Olympic Committee and the Netherlands Paralympic Committee. In addition, we collected data from the archival materials to complement and check the information obtained from the interview. The analysis was based on thematic analysis. An important milestone in this integration was marked by the signing of a declaration on the initiative of the former State Secretary of the ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. This declaration was the initiative to integrate disability sport in mainstream sport. The Netherlands Olympic Committee was under formal and positive pressure to sign a country-led declaration, and this integration was " coercive isomorphism." The integration had the advantages of "sharing resources" and "getting fund", led to the strengthening of institutional legitimacy. Also, it had influences on "integration of the national federations and the national disability sport organizations," "grassroots expansion in region sport clubs," and "inclusion of society." Notably, these influences by integration were considered to "mimetic isomorphism" and "normative isomorphism." This study has contributed to the theoretical accumulation of a neo-institutional theory in the context peculiar to sport.
In Japan, the Basic Act on Sport aims to promote participation in not only competitive sport activities but also leisure-time physical activities (LTPA). However, LTPA levels among Japanese people remain low. In the field of leisure studies, lack of leisure participation is often understood through the conceptual lens of constraints and constraint negotiation, and these concepts have guided LTPA research. Canada, where leisure studies is well-established, has actively promoted LTPA, which resulted in a more physically active society. Therefore, cross-cultural research on constraints to and constraint negotiation for LTPA between Japan and Canada can provide us with valuable insights into achieving goals specified in the Basic Act on Sport and developing similar LTPA-related polices in the future. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine cultural similarities and differences in LTPA constraints and constraint negotiation between Japanese and Euro-Canadian adults. Useable data were obtained from 299 Japanese and 286 Euro-Canadians using online surveys. Results of Hotelling T2 tests and follow-up t-tests indicated that (a) Euro-Canadian adults participated in LTPA more frequently than Japanese adults; (b) Euro-Canadian adults experienced lifestyle constraints more than Japanese adults; and (c) Euro-Canadian adults utilized psychological, physiological, lifestyle, interpersonal, and time negotiation strategies more than Japanese adults. These results highlighted cultural similarities in constraints and cultural differences in constraint negotiation between Japanese and Euro-Canadian adults. This research emphasizes the importance of leisure education in Japan, and the future LTPA-related polices including Sport Basic Plan should take into account leisure education as life learning opportunities for Japanese people.
So far, little attention has been paid to the way sport consumers evaluate their community networks (i.e., social network quality). Therefore, the following three objectives were set for this study: (1) to quantify multidimensionally the evaluation of community ties through sports as social network quality, (2) to examine the influence of social network quality on conative loyalty, and (3) to examine the relationship between social network quality and to clarify the causal relationship between social network quality and attachment to the region where one currently resides, as well as the relationship including conative loyalty. Then, the relationships among social network quality, attachment to the region, and conative loyalty were examined. The data were collected from an online survey panel that followed for the prefectural teams in a national high school baseball tournament. The results showed that social network quality and attachment to the region were significant antecedents of conative loyalty. Furthermore, the results suggest that the positive effect of social network quality on intention to continue support is mediated by attachment to the region. This result extends previous studies focusing on consumer experience quality and allows for a new measurement of consumer experience quality, which is an evaluation of the quality of social relationships.