Health and happiness are two essential purposes for people across cultures. Sport is one of the most popular leisure activities that people enjoy worldwide. The role of sport in promoting health has been well recognized, and sport is also supposed to boost participants' happiness. The purposes of this keynote are: (a) to provide an overview of the associations between sport, health and happiness; (b) to explore the specific relationships between sport, health and happiness in the context of the 2022 Hangzhou Asian Games based on a survey (N = 1000) conducted in May 2022; and (c) to examine the impact of preparations of the 2022 Hangzhou Asian Games on the residents' sport participation, and their satisfaction towards the changes it has brought to the city. The results showed that (a) different sport participation frequency, duration and sport cost of last year had significant correlation with health and happiness; (b) residents who had different sport participation frequency, duration, sport spending were significantly different in health and happiness; (c) most residents were more active in sport than before and they were very satisfied with multiple life satisfaction domains in Hangzhou. This study deepened the understanding of the positive relationships between sport and health and happiness, and confirmed the effectiveness of using mega sports events to improve residents' sport participation, promoting the development of the city and leading to a better life for residents.
In Japan, it is said that Okinawans are very enthusiastic in their support for the Okinawan national high school baseball teams in the National High School Baseball Championship, commonly known as Summer Koshien (hereinafter referred to as "Koshien championship"). In fact, when the Okinawa national teams are competing, it is reported that "the number of automobiles on the road reduces," "some individuals take a day off from work," and "crowds of people gather in front of televisions set up in public locations." On the other hand, there have been no attempts to survey the people of Okinawa prefecture and clarify the factors of this phenomenon, and academic understanding and clarification of this phenomenon have not progressed. Therefore, this research aims to understand the emotions and behaviors of the Okinawan people in terms of their support for the Okinawa national teams in Koshien championship from the viewpoint of sport consumer behavior, taking into account historical and cultural backgrounds. The results suggest that while some factors of Okinawans' support for the Okinawa national teams can be adequately explained by previous research on sport consumer behavior, there are also areas of significant divergence, and a major factor explaining the uniqueness of the divergence is the historical and cultural background, including attitudes toward the rest of the regions.
This study performed a longitudinal analysis of the difference in physical fitness between junior high school students who experienced school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic (the “COVID-19 pandemic experienced group”) and junior high school students who did not (the control group). The COVID-19 pandemic experienced group comprised 90 first-year junior high school students, whose physical fitness was measured in May 2019 during their first year of junior high school, May 2020 during their second year of junior high school, and May 2021 during their third year of junior high school. The control group comprised 92 first-year junior high school students, whose physical fitness was measured in May 2017 during their first year of junior high school, May 2018 during their second year of junior high school, and May 2019 during their third year of junior high school. For each measurement item, a two-factor analysis of variance was performed ([COVID-19 pandemic experienced group, the control group] × measurement time [first year of junior high school, second year of junior high school, third year of junior high school]). For both boys and girls, no significant interaction was observed for height, weight, BMI, grip strength, sitting upright, sitting forward bending, repetitive side jump, 20 m shuttle run, 50 m run, standing long jump, or handball throw. Therefore, no difference in development was observed for height, weight, BMI, muscle strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, general endurance, speed, explosive power, or dexterity between the COVID-19 pandemic group and control group for both boys and girls.
With the shift of athletic club activities to communities, there is an immediate need to secure human resources who are continuously involved in "supporting sports" on a daily and community scale. Prior research with university students has hypothesized an association between the enjoyment of "supporting sports" activities and continuously behavior, but relationship has not been verified due to lack of behavioral indicators. On contrast, research on the sport commitment model suggests that enjoyment of the activity forms sport commitment and is associated with sport behavior, and that obligatory continuers who are not enjoying themselves will drop out. Using the Sport Commitment theory, we believe this research will help to gain useful insights when considering management strategies for university students.
The purpose of this study was to compare enjoyment and commitment of continuers and dropouts, and to clarify the relationship between continuity factors and continuous participation behavior. First, we verified the applicability of the Japanese version of the SCQ-2, which measures activities that "supporting sports". Next, we compared the continuity factors between the continuers and dropouts. The results of the comparison of continuation factors by continuation status showed that the Enthusiastic Commitment scores were significantly higher in the continuation group. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between continuance factors and continuous participation behavior indicators for the continuation and dropout groups. The results showed a relationship between Enthusiastic Commitment and activity frequency in the continuation and dropout group. In addition, a correlation was found between enjoyment and activity frequency in the dropout group. However, no relationship between continuity factors and duration was found.