This study investigated variations in pregnancy-related discomfort experienced, as well as their relationships with sleep during each trimester. A total of 344 pregnant women (first trimester 98, second trimester 105, third trimester 141) were surveyed using the pregnancy-related discomforts scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The nausea, shoulder discomfort, and cold hands and feet experienced during the first trimester were worse than during the third trimester. The fatigue felt during the first and third trimesters were related to sleep quality and daytime dysfunction. The malaise experienced during the first trimester was related to sleep quality. During the second trimester, the malaise was related to daytime dysfunction and during the third, it was related to both sleep quality and daytime dysfunction. The nausea experienced during the first trimester was related to sleep disturbances. The irritability demonstrated during the second trimester was related to sleep quality. These results suggest that understanding sleep disorders experienced by pregnant women will be helpful in predicting pregnancy-related discomforts.
The Yes/No vocabulary test has some methodological advantages compared with the commonly used multiple-choice vocabulary test. To clarify the nature of both tests, we conducted two surveys. Participants ranged from high school students to adults in their 60s. We examined the relationships between these two vocabulary tests and reading activity, which is a major source of vocabulary learning. We found an intermediary relationship: familiarity with reading directly predicts known rates on the Yes/No test, and the known rate predicts correct answer rates on the multiple-choice test. Based on this result, we concluded that the Yes/No test reflects a “rough understanding of the meaning of words,” which is the initial vocabulary learning effect of reading. Thus, the effect of reading activities can be detected more sensitively by the Yes/No test. The results also suggest that the multiple-choice test reflects a “detailed understanding of the meaning of words” that precedes the rough understanding of meaning.
This study examined the factors affecting public acceptance of the designation of areas in the Recycling Demonstration Project for Soil Generated from Decontamination Activities. The designated areas are requested to receive the soil collected after the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. This introduces what typically known as a Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) issue, which dominates around the inequitable allocation of a given burden and hinders the building of consensus. This study assumed that allocating the burden to multiple locations instead of only one location would increase acceptance. An experiment was conducted which presented a scenario manipulating the burden allocation amongst a sample of adults requited from all over Japan. The results revealed that participants who were allocated to the multiple-locations condition evaluated the situation as having less inequity, fewer risks and stigma, and a fairer procedure, as well as being more acceptable than those who were allocated to the one-place condition.
This study examined the effects of the implicit theory of intelligence and parenting ability on mental health. We conducted an internet survey of 824 parents who lived with their school-age children in elementary or junior high school, in which they rated the severity of parenting stressors they experienced, their mental distress from parenting, their subjective health, and their implicit theories about the plasticity of intelligence and parenting ability. Results indicated that a stronger fixed theory of parenting (i.e., belief that parenting ability is unchangeable) was related to less subjective health as well as a stronger relationship between the severity of a parenting stressor and the mental distress they experienced from parenting. Moreover, more fixed views of intelligence corresponded with greater mental distress from parenting and poorer health. These results suggest that incremental theories about parenting and intelligence might mitigate the negative effects of parenting stressors and reduce the risk of deteriorating mental health.
The right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) scale has been associated with prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup conflict. This study developed Japanese versions of the RWA scale and examined their validity. Although it is a well-established assessment tool to measure authoritarian dispositions, none of the RWA scales translated into Japanese were standardized. In this study, we translated the RWA scale items into Japanese using the back translation method and verified their reliability and construct validity. Results revealed that Japanese versions of the RWA scale comprised two factors with a method factor and had adequate reliability and construct validity. This study provides new insights into the structure of authoritarian personalities in the Japanese population.
This study examined the moderating effects of regulatory focus on the relationship between basic psychological needs support from friends, needs satisfaction, and well-being. Based on regulatory focus theory, it was hypothesized that in a promotion focus, the need for autonomy would be better fulfilled and a person’s well-being would increase when they perceived autonomy support, whereas in a prevention focus, the need for relatedness would be better fulfilled and a person’s well-being would increase when they perceived relatedness support. University students (n = 223) participated in this study. The results indicated that when there was perceived relatedness support, students with high prevention focus fulfilled the need for relatedness more than those with low prevention focus. Since we focused on relatedness support from friends, safety and calmness were emphasized, which fit the prevention focus. Additionally, relatedness support influences the need fulfillment of relatedness, which in turn affects a person’s well-being. These results supported the prevention focus hypothesis, but not the promotion focus hypothesis.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediation models of work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment from a lifespan development perspective. Specifically, It was verified that work-to-family enrichment mediated the relationship between work support and family performance, and family-to-work enrichment mediated the relationship between family support and job performance. The participants were in their 30s (n = 211 (122 men and 89 women)), 40s (n = 212 (130 men and 82 women)), and 50s (n = 193 (129 men and 64 women)), and were full-time employees in Japan who filled out a web survey. The mediation models of work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment were supported in people in their 30s to 50s. The results also showed that work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment have mediating roles.