Critical parameters of 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,5-nonafluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pentanone which has been paid attention as a working fluid for organic Rankine cycle system or high temperature heat pump system were measured by the visual observation of meniscus disappearance. To obtain the critical density, meniscus were observed along six isochoric lines in the density range from 582 kg/m3 to 639 kg/m3. The critical density was determined as the density at which the meniscus remained fixed with decreasing temperature. The critical density was determined to be 599.2 ± 3.7 kg/m3. The critical temperature was determined from the observation of the meniscus disappearance with temperature increasing. The critical temperature was determined to be 442.09 ± 0.03 K. And then, the critical pressure was measured to be 1857 ± 6 kPa.
In order to measure the optical properties of human skin in vivo, we developed a practical instrument that provides simple, prompt, and accurate measurements. The instrument utilized a reflection spatial profile measurement (RSPM), which estimated the optical properties by measuring radiation reflected from skin under stripe-patterned irradiation. RSPM can measure optical properties over a wide wavelength range, but it carries the risk of aberrations in the optical system that decrease measurement accuracy. Therefore, in this study, Zemax optical design software was used to evaluate the optical performance, and the percentage error caused by the optical performance was clarified by Monte Carlo simulations. Using the results, we developed a high-performance instrument with only −0.4% error in measurement accuracy. In addition, we demonstrated that the instrument enables us to measure differences in optical properties caused by changing the moisture content of skin.
The gaseous diffusion coefficients of chloroethane (CH3CH2Cl), 1,1-dichloroethane (CH3CHCl2), 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) into dry air, nitrogen and oxygen have been measured in the temperature range 303 K–453 K and at atmospheric pressure by the use of the Taylor dispersion method. The diffusion coefficients do not vary in practice on substituting pure nitrogen or oxygen for dry air for any chloroethanes measured in this study. The diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing molecular weight of chloroethanes. The present results can be reproduced well by the functional form D = ATB, where D (cm2s-1) is the diffusion coefficient at 101.325 kPa (1 atm) and T(K) is the absolute temperature. The constants A and B are as follows: chloroethane–(air, nitrogen, oxygen), A = 8.90×10–6, B = 1.67; 1,1-dichloroethane–(air, nitrogen, oxygen), A = 1.04×10–5, B = 1.61; 1,2-dichloroethane–(air, nitrogen, oxygen), A = 1.14×10–5, B = 1.59; 1,1,1-trichloroethane –(air, nitrogen, oxygen), A = 1.07×10–5, B = 1.58.
For the measurement of the Soret coefficient and the thermodiffusion coefficient in ternary systems, we have developed the working equations and the experimental setup based on the holographic grating technique which we call the Soret forced Rayleigh scattering (SFRS) method. Introducing another probing laser of the different wavelength enables to evaluate the mass transport of the two independent components in the ternary systems. As the wavelengths of the probing lasers, λ = 403 nm and λ = 639 nm have been selected. The experimental setup has been validated by the measurement of the benchmark systems composed of tetralin, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane. We applied the SFRS method to the measurement of the ternary polymer solutions of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/styrene/2-butanone. The Soret coefficient and the thermodiffusion coefficient of the ternary polymer solutions have been shown for the first time.