Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the acetone-methanol-ethanol-1-propanol-water system were measured at atmospheric pressure, using a flow-type recirculation apparatus newly developed. In the present experiments, three mixtures of given compositions were fixed as pseudo-components; equilibrium vapor compositions for the liquid solutions made of a couple of pseudo-components were measured. The reliability of the VLE data obtained was confirmed with an area test presented in the present study.
Global ozone issue due to released CFCs and HCFCs was introduced. The necessity of the thermophysical properties and the necessity of the effective research under an international cooperation were stressed.
It is briefly reviewed and commented that recent studies on effective thermal conductivity of the three phased material. The author also explains a new three phased model on the effective thermal conductivity of porous material derived by the authors recently from experimental values for eighteen kinds of porous rocks at dried, moist and water saturated conditions. Accuracy of the model is shown for the eighteen kinds of rocks within ±22%, for one hundred twenty-eight alteration core samples ±20%, for normal concrete ±10%, for short fiber reinforced concrete ±15% and for light weight concrete ±10% except for two data for the concrete having very large porosity.
The effect of radiative properties on radiation transfer in absorbing and scattering media are first discussed, and the formulations for deriving the radiative properties of the fibrous medium from those of fibers are shown. Using the formulations, the effect of fiber orientation and fiber diameter on the radiation transfer in fibrous media is shown.
Human beings have a heat regulation mechanism in which, depending on various factors, energy production is controlled to balance with energy output, keeping the body core temperature constant. Structured fiber materials made of organic polymer fibers have been used as ideal clothing materials for thousands of years and will continue to be used in the future for protecting the bodies' heat balance. Fibre material itself has low thermal conductivity, while structured fibre material has high thermal insulation and permeability. These features control the heat and water vapor transfer so as to assist the heat regulation mechanism of the human body, resulting in physiological conformity. Clothing material is a typical example of materials used in the human environment. Such materials require harmony with human sense. In this paper, we look at these materials from the standpoint of their thermophysical properties, represented by their surface characteristics, heat and water transfer and mechanical properties.