There is presented a new method for measuring moisture permeability of fiber assembly using an infrared hygrometer with optical fibers. This method uses an one-dimensional unsteady water-vapor diffusion in a sample and the adjacent stationary dry air layer. Comparing the measured results of humidity change at the air layer point with numerical ones, the apparent diffusion coefficient are determined. Measuring apparatus was constructrd and tested for a few sample; glass fiber filter, synthetic fiber papers and non-woven fabric.
Earth surfaces, sea surfaces, and atmosphere are observed by thermal emission from orbits. This paper reviews mission objectives of global change research of the earth environment, and observation methodology in the thermal infrared. Observation items, measurement schemes, and instruments are described for the disciplines of earth surface/cloud, atmosphere, and earth radiation budget.
Laser-Induced Fluorescence is suitable for radical concentration measurements in flames because of haveing relatively strong fluorescence intensity and being able to excite the specific species selectively by a dye laser. In this paper, measurements of temperature and species concentration in flames by Laser-Induced Fluorescence are described.
Among several empirical methods, the group contribution method has wide applicability for predicting the physical properties of pure compounds. By means of this method, the physical properties are easily predicted by the summation of group increments for each functional groups which constitutes the compounds. The values of individual group increments can be determined by data regression using literature values. In this paper, the group contribution methods are discussed for the prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure organic compounds.
Recent topics concerned with: (1) Solubilities of a gas, such as oxygen, in aqueous solutions containing electrolytes and organic compounds, (2) Solubilities of gases or vapors in molten polymers, (3) Solubilities of high-boiling compounds in super critical fluids, and (4) Distribution coefficients of enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems are reviewed. Equations of state, solution models such as the scaled-particle theory, UNIFAC-FV, and the osmotic virial equations can be successfully applied to correlate the solubilities mentioned above. For engineering purpose, group-contribution method should be extended to more complex mixtures. The computer simulation methods, MC and MD, are expected to be applied to predict the solubilities of mixtures interested in chemical industry.
Among the numerous types of the densimeters, some of the apparatuses classified into the indirect methods have the great advantages of thier simple instrumentations and superior efficiencies of the measurements. Recent trends of the indirect methods are briefly reviewed focusing on the vibrating-tube densimeters and the magnetic suspension densimeters.
A function type computer program package for “PROPATH Ver. 7.1” written by FORTRAN77 has been developed. It contains functions for helium-4, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, n-hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, oxygen, air, carbon dioxide, water based on the IFC 1967 formulation for industrial use, water based on the IAPS 1984 formulation for scientific and general use, ammonia, methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, refrigerants 12, 13B1, 22, 114 and 502. Some ninety functions for thermophysical properties are provided though the number of functions available for each substance differs from a substance to another. These properties are saturation pressure, saturation temperature, specific volume, specific enthalpy, specific entropy, specific internal energy, latent heat, dryness fraction, isobaric specific heat, isochoric specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, adiabatic exponent, sonic velocity and so on. The newly developed version, PROPATH 7.1, is going to be sold as MS-FORTRAN libraries. However it may also be transferred to computer centers of any non-profit organizations free of charge.
The pulse heating method, using resistive self heating or laser surface heating, has been developing rapidly in these days with the aid of advanced technology, such as fast radiation thermometry, pulsed laser heating, and fast digital data acquisition systems. Especially in the extremely high temperatures, this method is expected to be a promising measurement method of thermophysical properties. In this paper, history, basic idea, and current topics of the pulse heating method are mentioned and problems left in the future are discussed.
An interlaboratory comparison on the measurement of the thermal expansion coeffisient of some plastics has been carried out. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis was selected as a measurement method, and some kinds of materials, such as polyethylene, epoxy, polyimide, and aluminium were selected for the experiments. As the results, a fairly good agreement among the different measuring apparatuses was confirmed, and the thermal expansion coefficient for these materials can be measured with an accuracy of ±2-7%.