Molten salts have been expected to be used in thermal storage devices, fuel cells for power generation, molten salt reactors and so forth. Therefore, the information of thermophysical properties on molten salt is indispensable, and the understanding on the process of both melting and solidifying are quite significant. In the present paper, measurements for the melting point, which is one of the basically important thermophysical properties, are examined out for some kinds of molten salt, and also the super-cooling behavior for both potassium thiocyanate KSCN and calcium chloride CaCl2 are examined by taking the cooling rate as parameter. Furthermore, the effect of sample mass on super-cooling behavior for CaCl2 are investigated. In addition, the solidification process for KSCN are visualized.
The densities and refractive indices of LiI-KI and LiI-CsI binary melts have been measured with high accuracy. The electronic polarizabilities of the melts have been determined from the measured densities and refractive indices by Clausius-Mossotti equation. The molar volumes of the melts deviate positively from the additivity more than the experimental errors. The electronic polarizabilities of the melts have the positive temperature dependence and deviate negatively form the additivity more than the experimental errors. It has been concluded that coordination number and ionic distance cause the temperature and composition dependences of the polarizability.
Recent development on the structural study of liquids under high pressure and high temperature is reviewed. Using x-rays from synchrotron radiation with high energy and high brightness, x-ray diffraction measurements have been successfully performed for various liquids. The pressure-induced structural changes are discussed in relation to the changes in the electronic structures.
The six Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) just established for thermal properties measurements of polymers using thermal analysis techniques such as TG, DSC, DTA and TMA have been explained from not the view point of the contents but those of the background and characteristics of the establishment work. It was stressed that the success of the work including the first standardization of specific heat capacity measurement with DSC in the world depends strongly on the cooperation of the working members with The Society of Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis, Japan at research level of thermal analysis of polymers.
Development status of the functionally gradient materials (FGMs) which were originally introduced in Japan was summaried. A five-year project for FGMs has been sucssessfully completed. Three groups of materials design, synthesis and evaluation established the generic technology of FGMs for relaxing the thermal stress in an environment with a maximum temperature of 2000K and a temperature difference of 1000K. The project succceded in creating small samples with 30mm of diameter and also 300mm squre panels.
Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of diamond films, semiconductor superlattice films, and carbon fibers are shown as interesting examples that contribute to understanding the physical properties of thin films and fibers. Recent progress in measurement methods are reviewed for thermal conductivity and diffusivity parallel and perpendicular to the surface of thin films and the axis of fibers.
In the field of the study of fabric hand, there is a maxim that states the concept of ‘hand’ becomes important where the material is worn or directly touched by the human body. Fabric used for clothing is best adapted to this case. The ‘hand’ is considered to be one of the most important properties for material touched by human hand, as pointed out, and this property makes fabric suitable as an interface between man and the outer environment. In this paper, the method of objective evaluation of fabric hand using fabric basic mechanical and surface properties is introduced and recent applications of this method for various materials such as paper, cosmetics, furniture and interior materials of motor car, to judge the performance and quality of touch or comfort are also mentioned. It is shown that this method is useful for other kinds of materials as well as clothing.