To present a systematic review of published studies in databases such as PUBMED, REDALYC, SCIELO, DIALNET, SCOPUS, EBSCO and CONRICYT related to the role-played by the components present in the vegetable oil of grape seed (Vitis vinífera) and the prevention or delay in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the research revealed that neurodegenerative diseases causes alterations in consciousness or in the nervous system leading to severe damage in neuronal cells, these pathologies are considered gradual and progressive. Various syndromes manifest the degenerative diseases of the nervous system; in some of them the predominant symptom is the progressive dementia. Among the components of the diet that in numerous epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association are vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols, the latter being the ones addressed in this document. There is an important evidence that a nutritional support based on polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants can be applied to subjects with a history of neurodegenerative conditions in order to act as neuroprotectors. This requires the determination of the nutritional benefits of these nutrients or of nutraceuticals for the health of this group of patients.
Sixty-four bottles of red palm olein and palm olein (constituted as control) samples were stored at permutations of common home setting variables which are: temperature (room temperature (24°C) or 8°C), light (kept in dark or exposure under light) and oxygen (opened or sealed caps). The effects of temperature, oxygen and light on the stability of red palm olein and palm olein were studied over 4 months of storage at simulated domestic conditions. The degree of auto- and photo-oxidations was evaluated by monitoring the following quality parameters: acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, fatty acids composition, carotenes and vitamin E. It is noted from the study that opened bottles of red palm olein was found to be stable for 4 months in comparison to its counterpart (palm olein) evidenced from their primary oxidative constituents (peroxides) and hydrolytic behavior (free fatty acids). Opened bottles are better off when stored at 8°C and protected from light for a longer shelf-life. Sealed bottles of palm olein showed better storage stability in the dark at 8°C; whereas sealed bottles of red palm olein was found to be stable at both temperatures studied without the influence of light. After 4 months of varying storage conditions, the fatty acid composition, vitamin E and carotenes of both oils remained unchanged. The phytonutrients in red palm olein rendered better storage stability when compared to palm olein.
Microalgae is a potential producer of functional lipids such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fucoxanthin. In the present study, lipids from ten microalgae species were analyzed especially focusing on the fucoxanthin, lipid and fatty acid compositions. The study revealed a remarkable variation in total lipids content, fucoxanthin content, lipid class composition and n-3 PUFA content in individual species, although they belong to the same genus. Among microalgae examined, Pavlova lutheri contained the highest total lipids content (313.59 mg g–1 dry weight) and considerable amount of fucoxanthin (3.13 mg g–1 dry weight). It also had the highest level (28.01%) of total n-3 PUFA with high level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (17.76%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (7.61%). The highest fucoxanthin content (5.19 mg g–1 dry weight) was observed in Chaetoceros gracilis. C. gracilis also contained relatively high level of total lipids (228.87 mg g–1 dry weight) and 10.67% EPA. The results also demonstrated that Nannochloropsis oculata contained the greatest amount of EPA (26.21%), while Isochrysis galbana had the highest level of DHA (8.76%). And both microalgae contained 1.71 and 4.44 mg g–1 dry weight fucoxanthin, respectively. Microalgal lipids containing abundant fucoxanthin and n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA in the present study will be used as nutraceutical lipids with great commercial potential.
The kinetics of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil using ammonium formate as a hydrogen donor over a Ni-Ag0.15/SBA15 catalyst were studied. Then, a kinetic model for the hydrogenation of low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil was established, and it was found that the reaction rate constants of hydrogenations of 9c-18:1 and 12c-18:1 oleic acid were 0.1262 and 0.0148, and the catalytic selectivity of linoleic acid was 2.04. For the catalyst loading of 0.23%, the hydrogenation temperature was 80°C, the ammonium formate concentration was 0.32 mol/50 mL, and the low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil was hydrogenated in 90 min; it was also found that the iodine value of low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil was 80 g I2/100 g, the oleic acid content was 65%, and the trans fatty acids (TFAs) content was only 6.7%. Therefore, CTH may be widely used in the modification of oils and fats.
The fatty acids in seven species of fish roes were determined by GC-MS in combination with principal component and cluster analyses in order to derive their fatty-acid profiles and fingerprints. Twenty-three common chromatography peaks were identified in the fatty-acid fingerprints of the seven fish roes. A total of 19 typical fatty acids were identified in the fish roes studied. The fatty acid contents of the roes were significantly different, with saturated-fatty-acid contents in the seven roes ranging from 26.69% to 41.81%, and the unsaturated-fatty-acid contents ranging from 57.65% to 72.21%, the total EPA and DHA content (37.20%) is high in E. cypselurus roe, especially. The seven roe species were clearly distinguished according to fatty-acid composition and content by principal component analysis (PCA) and divided into two groups by cluster analysis (CA). PCA of the fatty acid data yielded three significant PCs , which together account for 94% of the total variance; with PC1 contributing 54% of the total.
Refined red palm olein (RPOo) is the first cooking oil that is a pro-Vitamin A source due to its high carotenoid concentration. The quality specifications from the manufacturers are usually applied to freshly produced oil. However, there is currently no information regarding the oxidative stability and phytonutrient content (Vitamin E and Carotene) for RPOo after prolonged storage time. The objective then is to study the effect of two local storage conditions and storage period(s) on the oxidative stability of RPOo. In this study, peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AnV), induction period (IP), free fatty acid (FFA), and Vitamin E content were determined periodically for twelve months under local storage conditions (supermarket and kitchen). Carotene content, however, was determined only at initial and at the 12th month of storage time periods. It was found that there was an overall progressive but slow increase in PV and p-AnV. For PV, the storage effects were inconsistent. However, the effects were significant (p < 0.01) on the AnV throughout storage. At the end of the 12-months, for both storage conditions, the PV < 10 meq O2 g–1, the AnV < 10, the FFA < 0.2 % (palmitic acid), with a 30% drop in the total Vitamin E, and carotenoids content showed no significant drop (p < 0.01). The PV and AnV were also within Codex Alimentarius’ recommended limits. Finally, the oxidative parameters showed that RPOo remains stable after year storage under the two simulated local storage conditions (the aforementioned supermarket and kitchen).
Quality parameters of potato chips (flat and serrated) fried either in palm oil (PO) alone or containing natural (thyme (TPO) and rosemary (RPO) extracts) and synthetic BHT (BPO) antioxidants were evaluated during storage period. The free fatty acid and peroxide values of chips fried in PO (control) were found between 0.18 and 0.21% to 1.00 and 1.04 meqO2/kg during the first storage month, respectively. However, these values were 0.07-0.10% and 0.55-0.90 meqO2/kg for chips fried in TPO, respectively. The water contents increased when storage time increased from 1 to 7 month and their values changed between 0.49 and 1.95% (flat potato chips in BPO) and between 0.88 and 1.24% (serrated potato chips in TPO). The total trans-fat contents were 0.13% (serrated potato chips in BPO) and 0.35% (both flat and serrated potato chips in PO) at the start of storage. The total trans-fat content after 7 months were 0.13% (PO fried flat and serrated potato chips) and 0.17% (serrated potato chips fried in BPO, TPO and RPO). The acrylamide contents varied between 152 (serrated potato chips in PO) and 540 µg/kg (flat potato chips fried in RPO) at the beginning of storage. However, the acrylamide contents changed during 7th storage month and ranged from 182 (serrated potato chips in PO) to 518 µg/kg (flat potato chips in RPO). Among fatty acids, while palmitic acid are determined between 37.14 (flat chips in PO) and 41.60% (serrated chips in TPO), oleic acid varied between 30.0 (flat chips in RPO) and 33.00% (serrated chips in PO). Sensory evaluation showed that PO containing antioxidants showed better consumer preference for potato chips until the end of storage.
The bioavailability of DHA-bound phospholipids, especially the DHA-bound lysophospholipid (DHA-LPL) could be considered the most effective DHA chemical forms for DHA accretion in the brain. Such a DHA-LPL should also have very high emulsifying stability performance based on its analogy with conventional soy LPL. Therefore, in this study, we describe two fishery byproducts, rich in DHA-bound phospholipids, to derive DHA-LPL via sn-1 positional specific lipase partial hydrolysis of the phospholipids. Through this reaction, the DHA composition increased to 43.8 % from 29.1 % in the salmon head phospholipid-derived DHA-LPL, and to 84.0 % from 47.4 % in the squid meal phospholipid-derived DHA-LPL. In fact, these obtained DHA-LPLs exhibited far higher emulsifying stability than the conventional food emulsifiers in the market. For example, the prepared high-purity squid meal phospholipid-derived LPL sustained an emulsion form for a week even under 80°C. Thus, food emulsifiers produced from fishery byproducts are considered to exhibit very high values of both in a sense of outstandingly high health benefits and sustaining emulsions even under very high temperatures.
Measurements of aroxyl (ArO · )-radical-scavenging rate constants (ksAOH) of antioxidants (AOHs) (i.e., α-, β-, γ-, δ-Tocopherol (TocH) and ubiquinol-10 (UQ10H2)) were performed in ethanol/chloroform/H2O (50/50/1, v/v) solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. ksAOH values were measured not only for each AOH, but also for the mixtures of two AOHs (i.e., TocH and UQ10H2). ksTocH values for α-, β-, γ-, δ-TocH increased 1.21, 1.28, 1.55, and 1.19 times, respectively, under the coexistence of constant concentrations of UQ10H2. Similar measurements were performed for eight vegetable oils 1 – 8, containing different concentrations of α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherol (TocH) and -tocotrienol (Toc-3H). ksOil values of all eight vegetable oils 1 – 8 also increased 1.24 – 1.54 times under the coexistence of constant concentrations of UQ10H2. A new mechanism to explain the notable increase of ksAOH values under the coexistence of two kinds of phenolic AOHs was proposed. UV-vis absorption of α-, β-, γ-Toc · radicals, produced by reaction of α-, β-, γ-TocHs (or vegetable oils 1 – 8) with ArO · , disappeared under the coexistence of TocHs (or oils) and UQ10H2, suggesting that the prooxidant reaction resulting from the presence of Toc · radicals is suppressed in the presence of UQ10H2.
This research work aimed to prepare and optimize “self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS)” by applying full factorial design (FFD) to improve solubilization and subsequently antiinflammatory efficacy of flufenamic acid (FLF). Suitable excipients were screened out based on the maximum solubility of FLF. FFD was applied using lipid (X1) and surfactant (X2) as independent variables against droplet size (Y1, nm), zeta potential (Y2, mV) and polydispersity index (PDI, Y3). Desirability function identified the main factors influencing the responses and possible interactions. Moreover, the optimized formulation (OFS1) was characterized and compared with pure FLF suspension. The prepared formulations (FS1–FS9) showed the size, PDI and zeta potential of 14.2–110.7 nm, 0.29–0.62 and –15.1 to –28.6 mV, respectively. The dispersion and emulsification of all formulations meted out within 2 min suggesting immediate release and successful solubilization. The optimized formulation OFS1 demonstrated ~ 85% drug release within 1 h which was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05) than FLF suspension. The hemolysis study negated the probable interaction with blood cells. Eventually, improved anti-inflammatory efficacy was envisaged which might be attributed to increased drug solubility and absorption. The present nanocarrier could be a promising approach and alternative to conventional dosage form.
The study involved the isolation and identification of a member of Streptomyces griseorubens and the identification of its secondary metabolite content. Two extract samples were prepared by using butanol and chloroform. In the analyses of the extracts TLC, FT-IR, and GC-MS were employed. Butanol extract appeared to be dominated by three different pyrrole compounds (43.59%), while two fatty acids, linoleic- and erucic acids, were the most abundant secondary metabolites in the chloroform extract, 27.57% and 12.34%, respectively. Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-compound was represented by a single and distinct band on the thin layer chromatography plate. In GC-MS spectra, it also constituted 13.50% of the butanol extract.
In this study two different strategy were followed to obtain a D-fructose-oleic acid ester. One of the strategies has been well established enzymatic synthesis of an ester bond. The other strategy excluded the biocatalyst and only used a mixture of two organic solvents as the reaction media, 2-methyl-2-butanol / dimethyl sulfoxide or tert-butanol / dimethyl sulfoxide for the production of D-fructose-oleic acid ester. Ester products obtained were characterised by using FT-IR, NMR, by MS. Product yield was also assessed by HPLC. Results of structural analyses and yield measurement indicated that two approaches produced almost identical ester products.
Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects including lipid-lowering that have been extensively studied. However, its bioavailability is low. To investigate the effect of nanoemulsified rice bran wax policosanol (NPOL) on plasma homocysteine, heart and liver histology in hyperlipidemic rats, high-fat diet containing 2.5% cholesterol was used to induce hyperlipidemia in Sprague Dawley rats. The hyperlipidemic rats were treated with NPOL and rice bran wax policosanol (POL) in comparison with normal diet (ND), high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and simvastatin-treated rats. Plasma homocysteine, heart and liver histology, and hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) were evaluated. The NPOL group, similar to the simvastatin group, showed reduced plasma homocysteine, preserved heart and liver histology, and down-regulated hepatic PPARG mRNA in comparison to the control group, and was better than the POL group. The results suggest that the modest effect of NPOL on homocysteine and preservation of heart and liver histology could be through the regulation of PPARG expression on a background of increased assimilation of rice bran wax policosanol.
Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid that can be found abundantly in various vegetable oils and potentially attractive to be used as raw material for epoxide chemical. In-situ epoxidation of oleic acid was conducted in batch reactor using peroxy-formic at 30-60°C. Pseudo-steady-state-hypothesis (PSSH) was applied to develop the kinetic model. Heterogeneous liquid-liquid system was chosen and four models which emphasized on the ring opening agent (ROA) and reversibility of the epoxidation reaction were proposed. It has been suggested that reversible model is well suited to represent the experimental data. Activation energy obtained from Arrhenius equation is in the range of 40-195 kJ/mol.
Ceramide, an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum, plays an essential role in making the skin barrier. One problem with the use of medical adhesive tape or sheets for skin is that their repeated attachment and detachment may cause some damage to the skin. An attempt has been made to eliminate this problem by mixing ceramide into the adhesive of sheets, and has delivered excellent clinical results. This study aimed to investigate whether ceramide is transferred from the adhesive with added ceramide to the skin. An adhesive sheet was prepared by adding synthetic ceramide (CER) to UV-curable acrylic adhesive gel. After affixing the adhesive sheet to human skin for a certain period, it was peeled off and cut perpendicular to the adhesive surface. Synchrotron micro-infrared spectroscopy of the sectioned samples showed that the ceramide concentration in the gel sheet decreases as the application time to human skin increases. This is thought to be due to the release of CER from the gel sheet.
This study was aimed to prepare oleogels of whale spermaceti wax (WsWO) and lanolin wax (LnWO), and to compare them with well-known animal wax oleogels of shellac (ShWO) and beeswax (BsWO). WsWO, ShWO and BsWO were prepared at 5% (w/w) organogelator addition level, while LnWO was necessarily prepared at its minimum gelling concentration (C*) of 30% (w/w) addition level. All oleogels were posed high oil binding capacity and thermal reversibility. Melting peak temperatures were ordered as ShWO > BsWO > WsWO > LnWO by calorimetry. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of both β´and β type polymorphs, together with needle-like crystal morphology. Rheological analyses indicated that the stiffness of the gels were ordered as BsWO > WsWO > LnWO > ShWO. All showed good thixotropy, and thermal stability until 40°C (ShWO until 80°C). Finally, the sensory descriptive analysis indicated that LnWO had distinct negative sheep odor, but WsWO was quite similar to BsWO. Overall, LnWO determined to be not proper for food applications, but WsWO was shown to be a suitable oleogel for food applications.
The development of actuators for power sources is essential for the efficient manipulation of fluids in microfluidics systems. In this work, a capacitor-type three-layer paper actuator was fabricated by sandwiching a polyelectrolyte layer between two films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). The paper actuator exhibited stable large electromechanical deformations in bilateral symmetry under alternating square-wave electric field. The actuation properties were examined in a function of voltage (±0.5, ±1, ±1.5, ±2, and ±2.5 V) and frequency (1, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 Hz). In addition, the PEDOT/PSS electrode films with different thicknesses were prepared, and the effects of actuator thickness on actuation properties were examined. As a result, it was found that the actuator displacement increased considerably with reducing actuator thickness. In addition, the actuator with a thickness of 48 μm demonstrated a maximum displacement of 5.8 mm at a voltage of 1.5 V and a frequency of 0.05 Hz. The proposed actuator can be potentially used in the development of power sources for micropumps and check valves of microfluidic devices.