In 1960s and 1970s, some multi-anvil type high-pressure devices were developed and installed in Japan for high-pressure research. History of these apparatuses made in Japan is introduced in this article, based on program and abstract of papers for the high pressure conference of Japan.
This article addresses the design of hydraulic press and guide block in multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus from a maker's point of view. Recent development has made it possible to supply the high quality hydraulic press system with a compact size. Characteristics and problems of 100 and 111 guide blocks are reviewed.
Multi-anvil-type high-pressure systems have been successfully applied to synchrotron radiation experiments. The first system with DIA type apparatus named MAX80 was installed at Photon Factory in 1980. A Kawai type double stage assembly with thrust of 1500 ton was installed at the 3rd generation SR facility SPring-8 in 1997. The family is widely spread all over the world. Using these systems, the quality of X-ray diffraction under pressure was revolutionary developed. In addition to the diffraction experiment, XAFS, viscosity measurement, density measurement, high pressure generation using sintered diamond anvil and ultrasonic measurement have been newly developed and opened new fields in high pressure science.
Current status and near-future development of the multi-anvil apparatus in Earth and planetary science are discussed, on the basis of the statistics of the recently published papers and personal views on the historical achievements. Close relationships between multi-anvil technology and material science are described, as an example of experimentation on the transport properties of the Earth's interiors and application of innovative alloy materials.
A high-pressure apparatus with cubic-anvil device has been successfully working for more than 15 years at low temperatures down to 2 K under quasi-hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa in study of solid-state physics. In this paper we describe the development of our cryogenic techniques applied in making a cryostat for the cubic-anvil type high-pressure apparatus.
The experimental technique of high temperature generation with cubic anvil high pressure apparatus is summarized. Many efforts have been made to develop the proper cell assembly for high temperature generation, and each laboratory has its own technical know-how. In this article, we open our standard cell assemblies for in situ x-ray diffraction and single crystal growth. Stable high temperature generation higher than 2400°C at 6.5 GPa has been achieved owing to the use of insulation sleeve placed in a pyrophyllite pressure medium.
Recent advances in the specific heat measurement technique under high pressure are reviewed. It is shown that AC-calorimetry in the diamond anvil cell is successfully applied to detect a phase transition in a wide variety of pressure range.