Recent x-ray powder diffraction techniques with a diamond anvil cell and an image plate are briefly reviewed. Powder preparations and diffraction measurements should be done with care, especially for high pressure experiments, to make later intensity analyses reliable. High quality intensity data are applicable not only to structure analyses but to electron density analyses.
This paper reviews the important technical improvements accomplished during these years in the field of the use of the diamond anvil cell at high pressure on single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. A brief historical introduction to devices and the review of improvements of design and measurement technique are given.
In this article, we review the method of determination of elastic constants for molecular solids using high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy and the diamond anvil cell with wide conical apertures that makes its method possible. Solid Kr and ice-VI were employed to explain the elastic analysis for cubic and tetragonal system.
In this article, the techniques for Raman spectroscopy with a diamond anvil cell (DAC) are described. After the brief descriptions of Raman spectroscopy and the role of pressure in it, the instrumentation necessary to measure Raman spectra at high pressure and the techniques for obtaining good Raman spectra are presented. These include techniques for sample preparation, optical alignment, reduction of luminescence from diamonds and selection of a laser.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a very important field of study of rotational and vibrational motions of a molecule. Recent developments in micro FT-IR spectrometer enable us to measure IR spectra of very small (micron order) samples. In this article the experimental techniques of high-pressure IR measurements with a diamond anvil cell are described.
In this article, our recent development of low temperature technique arranged for a DAC is reviewed. A DAC is now a very powerful device to achieve high pressure and small enough to connect with low-temperature equipments. The development is mainly devoted to electrical resistance or magnetic susceptibility measurements under high pressures and low temperatures, up to 100GPa and down to mK region, and the details are described.
In this article, the methods to set up the system for laser heating using a diamond anvil cell are described for beginners. Lasers and optics suitable for the laser heating experiments, and the optical system for pressure and temperature measurements are technically introduced. The experimental methods for temperature determination are indicated as well as the temperature distribution on the basis of numerical calculations. The other techniques related to samples, pressure media and gaskets are also mentioned. The various experimental conditions given by the laser-heated diamond anvil cell open a new way for material science.
Green vegetables are a very important nutritional source for maintaining our health. However, because the chlorophyll converts to pheohytin with the fading of its green color when subjected to heat sterilization, it has long been a dream to store green vegetables for long periods of time. In our method, sterilization and inactivation of enzymes are carried out by a combination of high pressure and heat in an effort to develop green vegetables with superior storage characteristics. As a result, we have succeeded in reducing the micro-organism content in spinach, field peas and broccoli to an acceptable level in the practical use by the application of high pressure of 400 MPa at 55°C for 10 min.